types of sentences in hindi|kinds of sentences with examples

types of sentences in hindi|kinds of sentences with examples

Sentences पाँच प्रकार के होते हैं। ये हैं :
1. Assertive/Statement/Declarative
2. Interrogative
3. Imperative
4. Optative
5. Exclamatory

1. Assertive/Statement/Declarative Sentence :

When we need to give some facts or to describe events or things whether negative or positive, we use an assertive sentence. An assertive sentence makes only a statement, an assertion (दृढ़ कथन, निश्चित घोषणा, दावा) and ends with a full stop.

जब हमें किसी तथ्य (Fact) को दावे के साथ या दृढ़तापूर्वक स्वीकार करने की आवश्यकता होती है या किसी घटना (Event) या वस्तु को वर्णन (Describe) करने की आवश्यकता होती है, चाहे वह स्वीकारात्मक (Affirmative) हो या नकारात्मक (Negative), हम Assertive Sentence का प्रयोग करते हैं।

नीचे Assertive sentences के कुछ Structures (बनाबट) दिए गए हैं।

Structures :
* S+V+O/C
* S+v1/V5+O/C
* S + is/are/am/was/were + V4 +O/C
* S + have / has + V3 +O/C
* S + have/has + been + V4 +O/C
* S + V²+O/C
* S + modal + v1
* S + modal + be + V4
* S + modal + have + V3
* S + modal have been + V4

(जहाँ, S = Subject, V = Verb, O = Object, C = Complement)

Examples : Affirmative or Yes-statement :

Abhishek studies English.
We are playing cricket.
She may win the prize.
may be coming now.
I am sure you too will begin to speak English.
You should have applied for this post earlier.
He could have passed the examination if he had laboured hard.

Examples: Negative or No-Statement:

Negative Statement प्रायः First auxiliary verb के बाद Not रखने से बनता है;

जैसे-

He does not study well.
Komal is not living in Patna these days.
Abha has not been reading the newspaper.

लेकिन कुछ Negative words ऐसे हैं जिनके प्रयोग से Sentences अपने आप Negative बन जाते हैं और Not का प्रयोग नहीं करना पड़ता है;

जैसे-

They never come in/on time.  (वे कभी भी समय पर नहीं आते हैं।)
I hardly go there.  (मैं वहाँ बिल्कुल नहीं जाता हूँ।)
Barking dogs seldom bite.  (जो गरजता है वह बरसता नहीं।)

ऊपर दिए गए Sentences में Red words Negative words हैं जिनके प्रयोग से ये Sentences Negative बन गये हैं तथा अलग से Not का प्रयोग नहीं करना पड़ा है।

किसी Noun के पहले Negative word ‘No’ का प्रयोग करने से Sentence Negative बन जाता है,

जैसे-

I have no money.
He has no patience.
There is no possibility of his arrival.

2. Interrogative Sentence :

When we need to ask someone a question, we use an interrogative sentence. It ends with a mark of interrogation (?).
जब हमें किसी से कोई प्रश्न करने की आवश्यकता होती है, तो हम Interrogative Sentences का प्रयोग करते हैं। इसके अंत में Note of Interrogation (?) लगता है।

Interrogative Sentences दो प्रकार के होते हैं।

(a) Yes/No-questions.
(b) Wh-questions.

(a) Yes/No-questions : Yes/No-question form करने के लिए Auxiliary Verb को subject के पहले रखना पड़ता हैं। English language में 24 Auxiliary Verbs है; ये है – is , am, are, was, were, have, has, had, do, does, did, shall, will, should,would, can, could, may, might, must, ought to, used to, need और dare.

Examples: Yes/No-questions :

Structures : Auxiliary Verb + Subject + Main Verb + Other words?

Is that your pen?
Do you read any newspaper ?
Does he walk in the morning ?
Will he pass the examination ?
Can you speak English fluently (धारा प्रवाह) ?
Will there be peace everywhere?

(b) Wh-questions : In root there are nine basic question words.

ये Question words इस प्रकार हैं-

1. Who (Pronoun): for person (to find out subject or object) कौन, किसको

2. Whom (Pronoun): for person (to find out object) किसको

3. Whose (Pronoun/Adjective) : for possession (to find out subject or object) किसका

4. What (Pronoun/Adjective): for things (to find out subject or object)- क्या, कौन-सा

5. Which (Pronoun/Adjective) : for persons or things when choice is restricted (to find out subject or object) कौन – सा

6. Where (Adverb): for place – कहाँ

7. When (Adverb): for time- कब

8. Why (Adverb): for reason- कियों

9. How (Adverb/Adjective): for method, health, way – कैसे

Nine basic question words के अलावे कुछ Formative question words हैं;

जैसे-

1. How many : for number (संख्या) – कितना

2. How much : for quantity (मात्रा) -कितना

3. How far : for distance (दुरी) – कहाँ तक,कितनी दूर

4. How long : for duration (अवधि) – कब तक

5. How often : for frequency (आवृत्ति) – कितनी बार

6. How many times : for frequency (आवृत्ति) – कितनी बार

7. At what time: for exact time (निश्चित समय) – किस समय

8. At what place : for exact place (निश्चित जगह)—किस जगह

निम्नलिखित Points को ध्यान में रखें-

1. जब हमें Subject पता लगाने की आवश्यकता होती है, तो हमें सम्बन्धित Question word को पहले रखना चाहिए और इसका Structure होगा-

Structure : Question Word + Verb + Other words?

Examples :

Whose books are these ?

Who invented the television ?

Which candidate arrived first?

Whose/which horse won the race ?

Who is the Prime Minister of India ?

Who discovered the laws of motion ?

2. जब हमें Object पता लगाने की आवश्यकता होती है, तो हमें सम्बन्धित Question word को पहले रखना चाहिए और इसका Structure होगा-

Structure : Question Word + Auxiliary Verb + Subject+ Main Verb + Other वर्ड्स ?

Examples: What did they eat?

Whom do you like most ?

What paper do you read ?

Whose book did borrow?

Which hand do you use?

Who are you looking for ?/For whom are you looking?

Who are you talking to ?/To whom are you talking?

Which address did you send it to ? or,

To which address did you send it?

What do you base your theory on? or,

On what do you base your theory (सिद्धांत)?

ध्यान दें: Formal English में हम Preposition + Concerned Question word का प्रयोग करते हैं, लेकिन Ordinary English में हम सामान्यतः Preposition का प्रयोग Sentence के अंत में करते हैं। इससे Sentence के Meaning में कोई अंतर नहीं पड़ता है केवल Structure में थोड़ा अंतर हो जाता है।

3. Where का प्रयोग Place/Position/Direction पता लगाने के लिए करते हैं।

Examples:

Where do you live?
Where are you going?
Where is the capital of India ?
Where will you spend your vacation (अवकाश)?

4. When का प्रयोग Time पता लगाने के लिए किया जाता है।

Examples: When do you get up ?
when do you have your breakfast?
When does his birthday fall?
When was Dr Rajendra Prasad born?

5. Why का प्रयोग Reason (कारण) पता लगाने के लिए करते हैं।

Examples:

Why was he late ?
Why are you angry?
Why is he sitting over here?
Why is the government job your first choice?

6.How का प्रयोग Method/Health/Way पता लगाने के लिए करते हैं।

Examples:

How do you start the car ?  (Method)
How are you?  (Health)
How did he come here?  (In what way)

7. How का प्रयोग Adjectives के साथ इस प्रकार किया जाता है।

Examples:

How old are you?
How strong is he?
How important is this question ?

8. How का प्रयोग Much और Many के साथ इस प्रकार किया जाता है-

Examples:

How much (money) do you want?
How many (books) do you need ?

9. How का प्रयोग Adverb के साथ इस प्रकार किया जाता है-

Examples:

How fast does he run ?
How soon can you remember?
How seriously was he hurt?

Examples with Formative Question Words :

1. How many is used to find out Number (संख्या) – कितना
Examples:

How many languages can you speak?
How many brothers and sisters do you have ?
How many seats are there in the Lower House of the Indian Parliament?

2. How much is used to find out Quantity (मात्रा) – कितना
Examples:

How much milk can you drink at a time (एक बार में)?
How much water should a man drink everyday ?
How much time does it take to fly to Delhi from Patna ?

3. How far is used to find out Distance (दुरी)/ Extent (हद) – कितना दूर/कहाँ तक/किस हद तक
Examples:

How far is Washington from Delhi?
How far is your residence from here?
How far is your statemnet (कथन) correct?

4. How long is used to find out Duration (अवधि) – कब तक
Examples:

How long have you been living in Patna ?
How long are you going to stay here?
How long will you
take to complete this work ?

5. How often/How many times is used to find out Frequency (आवृत्ति) कितनी बार
Examples :

How often do you take tea in winter ?
How often have you been to America ?
How many times do you eat everyday ?
How many times have you visited the Taj ?

6. What kind of /What type of/What sort of is used to find out variety.
(प्रकार/किस्म)—किस प्रकार का/किस तरह का

Examples:

What kind of movie do you mostly watch ?
What type of person do you like most?
What sort of business does your father run?

3. Imperative Sentence :

When we need to express some order (command), request, advice and
prohibition, we use an imperative sentence.

जब हमें कोई आदेश (Order), आग्रह (Request), सलाह (Advice) और निषेध (Prohibition)का भाव व्यक्त करने की आवश्यकता होती है, तो हम Imperative Sentences- का प्रयोग करते हैं।

Examples: Come on/in time. >> (Order)
Help the poor. >> (Advice)
Don’t pluck the flowers. >> (Prohibition)
Have a cup of tea, please. >> (Request)
Please lend me fifty rupees. >> (Request)
Never tell a lie. >> (Advice)

ध्यान दें : Imperative Sentence में Subject “You” understood (अव्यक्त) रहता है। लेकिन उसका भाव निहित होता है।
Come in time = You come in time.
Help the poor = You help the poor.

कभी-कभी Imperative Sentence एक ही शब्द का होता है; जैसे-
Run! Hurry! Catch ! Come! Go !

ऐसे शब्दों से Strong Command/Order (सख्त आदेश) की अभिव्यक्ति होती है तथा ऐसे Imperative Sentences के अन्त में Note of Exclamation (!) का प्रयोग होता है।

4. Optative Sentence :

When we need to express a wish/prayer/curse to someone, we use an optative sentence.

जब हमें किसी व्यक्ति के प्रति शुभकामना (Wish), प्रार्थना/दुआ (Prayer) या अभिशाप बदुआ (Curse) व्यक्त करने की आवश्यकता होती है तो हम Optative Sentence का प्रयोग करते हैं।

Examples: Wish you a happy new year !/I wish you a happy new year! (नव वर्ष मुबारक हो!)
May success kiss your feet ! (सफलता तुम्हारा कदम चूमे !)
Many many happy returns of the day ! (यह दिन बार-बार आए)
May you live long ! (आप दीर्घायु हों!)
Would that he were alive ! (काश ! वह जिन्दा होता!)
May that building collapse ! (वह भवन ढह जाय!)

ध्यान दें : Optative sentence के अन्त में Note of exclamation (!) का प्रयोग होता है।May’ का प्रयोग Interrogative तथा Optative दोनों प्रकार के Sentences में होता है। May’ का प्रयोग Interrogative sentences में आज्ञा (Permission) का भाव व्यक्त करने के लिए होता है और Sentences के अन्त में Question Mark (?) का प्रयोग होता है। ‘May’ का प्रयोग Optative sentences में Wish/Prayer का भाव व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है और ऐसे Sentences के अंत में Note of exclamation (!) का प्रयोग होता है।

नीचे दिए गए examples को समझकर अपना concept clear करें-
May I use your pen? >> (Interrogative sentence)
May You be successful ! >> (Optative sentence)

5. Exclamatory Sentence :

When we need to express some strong and sudden feeling of surprise, sorrow, joy, anger, regret, contempt, hatred etc. we use an exclamatory sentence.

जब हमें आश्चर्य (Surprise), दुःख (Sorrow), हर्ष (Joy), क्रोध (Anger), पश्चाताप (Regret), घृणा (Contempt), दुश्मनी (Hatred)इत्यादि का भाव व्यक्त करने की आवश्यकता होती है तो हम Exclamatory Sentences का प्रयोग करते हैं।
How + Adjective
What + Adjective + Noun

सामान्यतः Exclamatory Sentences “What’ या ‘How’ से शुरू किए जाते हैं, यद्यपि कि ऐसा नितांत आवश्यक नहीं है। मुख्य बात यह है कि Sentences में Tone of
Exclamation का Expression हो।

Examples:
What a boy! >> (Surprise)
How beautiful! >> (Joy)
What a dashing personality! >> (Surprise/Joy)
How careful you are ! >> (Surprise)
Alas! I am undone. >> (Sorrow)
Hurrah! we have won the match. >> (Joy)

ध्यान दें : Note of Exclamation का प्रयोग exclamatory word के अन्त में या (exclamatory) sentence के अन्त में किया जाता है।  

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