sequence of tenses exercises

sequence of tenses exercises

Sequence of Tenses के सम्बन्ध में नीचे दिए गए Important Rules को समझकर अपना concept clear करें।
1. यदि Principal Clause का Finite Verb Present या Future Tense में हो तो, Subordinate/Dependent Clause का Verb किसी भी Tense में हो सकता है; जैसे-

Principal Clause Subordinate Clause
Pratik says that she works hard.
Pratik says that she worked hard.
Pratik says that she will work hard.
Pratik will say that she is laborious.
Pratik will say that she was laborious.
Pratik will say that she will be laborious.

धयान दे : जब दो वाक्य Subordinating Conjunction/Relative Adverb/Relative Pronoun से जुड़े होते हैं, तब इनमें एक Principal clause और दूसरा Subordinate/Dependent clause कहलाता है

2. यदि Principal clause का Finite Verb Present Tense या Future Tense में हो और Subordinate clause किसी Conjunction of Purpose (that, so that, in order that इत्यादि) से शुरू होता हो तो Subordinate clause के Finite Verb के पहले May का प्रयोग होता है;

जैसे-
I work hard so that I may pass.
I will work hard so that I may pass.

3. यदि Subordinate clause किसी Conjunction of Purpose से शुरू हो और Principal clause में past tense का Finite Verb हो तो Subordinate clause में Finite Verb के पहले Might का प्रयोग होता है; जैसे-
I worked hard so that I might pass.

4. Lest भी Conjunction of Purpose है जिसका अर्थ होता है-so that …..not (जिससे कि ……. नहीं); किन्तु इसके बाद May या Might का प्रयोग नहीं होता है, केवल
Should का प्रयोग होता है;

जैसे-
I labour hard lest I should fail.
I laboured hard lest I should fail.
I will labour hard lest I should fail.

5. यदि Sentence Conditional Form में हो, तो Subordinate clause का Finite Verb सामान्यतः Present Tense में होता है न कि Future Tense में;

जैसे-
She will pass if she labours hard.
I shall be very happy if you attend the function.

6. यदि Principal clause का Finite Verb Past Tense में हो, तो Subordinate clause का Verb भी Corresponding Past Tense में होता है;

जैसे-

Principal Clause Subordinate clause
She told me that her mother was not at home.
I would do if you liked it.
I knew that he would not help me.
My sister expected that I would come.
She ran fast so that she might reach in time.
The child did not know that his father had gone.

7. Subordinate clause में Universal Truth, General Truth, Habitual Fact, Geographical Truth इत्यादि का उल्लेख हो, तो उसका Verb Present Tense में रहेगा, यदि Principal Clause का Finite Verb Past Tense में हो; तब भी;
जैसे-

Principal clause Subordinate clause
He said that the earth is round.
My father said that honesty is the best policy,
He told her that two and two is four.
She told me that the sun is hot.

8. Subordinate clause में Adverb clause of Place/ Reason/Comparison हो, तो उसका Verb sense के अनुसार किसी भी Tense में हो सकता है, यदि Principal clause का Finite Verb Past Tense में हो; तब भी;
जैसे-

Principal clause Subordinate clause
She went to Bilaspur where his daughter is posted. (place)
She wanted to live where her husband lives. (place)
He did not help me because he is/was ill. (Reason)
She loved me more than she loves/loved /will love you (Comparison)
Last month he spent as much money as you will not spend in year (Comparison)

9. Subordinate clause में यदि Adjective clause हो तो उसका Verb sense के अनुसार किसी भी Tense में हो सकता है, यदि Principal clause का Finite Verb Past Tense में हो तब भी;

जैसे-

Principal clause Subordinate clause
I saw a man who has two heads.
The police caught the boy who steals bicycles.
I bought a pen which is very attractive,

10. Subordinate clause यदि As if ‘ या ‘As though’ से शुरू होता हो तो Past Tense  में प्रयुक्त Verb से Present Tense का भाव व्यक्त होता है,

जैसे-
She talks as if / as though she were mad.
She is not actually mad, however, she talks like a mad woman.
He ordered me as though he were my master .

धयान दें : ‘As if ‘/’As though’ के बाद were का प्रयोग होता है।

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