prepositions in hindi: examples, meaning, suitable and prepositions with answers

prepositions in hindi: examples, meaning, suitable :prepositions with answers

English Language में Preposition के प्रयोग में थोड़ी सावधानी बरतने की आवश्यकता होती है, क्योंकि किसी खास शब्द के साथ किसी खास Preposition का प्रयोग होता है तथा कुछ शब्दों के साथ भिन्न-भिन्न अर्थों में भिन्न-भिन्न Prepositions का। जैसे यदि हम कहे कि-

He is quite careless for the danger.
She is very careful for her health.

ऊपर दोनों sentences में ‘for’ Preposition का प्रयोग किया गया है जो गलत है। योकि careful तथा careless के बाद ‘of Preposition का प्रयोग होता है। अत: correct sentences होंगे-

She is very careful of her health.
He is quite careless of the danger.

अतः स्पष्ट है कि English Language में किसी खास शब्द के साथ किसी खास Preposition का प्रयोग होता है।
अब यहाँ देखें कि एक ही word ‘die के बाद भिन्न-भिन्न अर्थों में भिन्न भिन्न Prepositions का प्रयोग किस प्रकार हुआ है-

Many people die of cancer. / He died from over-eating.
He died for his motherland./ He died in battle.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples से स्पष्ट होता है कि जब कोई किसी बीमारी से मरता है तब die of कहते है, लेकिन जब अन्य कारण से मरता है तब die from कहा जाता है। इसी प्रकार जब कोई मातृभूमि के लिए मरता है तब die for कहा जाता है और जब कोई युद्ध में मारा जाता है

तब die in कहा जाता है। नीचे कुछ sentences हिन्दी अनुवाद के साथ दिए जा रहे है इनका अध्ययन कर अपना concept clear करें-

1.  He is in the room.  वह कमरे में है।

2. He got into the room.  वह कमरे में घुसा।

3. He bought a pen for ten rupees.  वह दस रुपये में कलम खरीदा।

4. He came after an hour.  वह एक घंटा में आया।

5. Noone is immortal on this earth.  संसार में कोई अमर नहीं है।

6. We have five fingers on each hand. हमारे प्रत्येक हाथ में पाँच ऊँगलियाँ हैं ।

7. The boy is eating sweets from a plate. लड़का तश्तरी में मिठाइयाँ खा रहा है।

8. He has no hair on his head.  उसके सिर में बाल नहीं हैं।

9. There is a deep wound on his left thigh.  उसकी बायीं जाँघ में एक बड़ा घाव है।

ऊपर के सभी हिन्दी वाक्यों में ‘में’ आया है परन्तु उस ‘में’ के लिए English में भिन्न-भिन्न Prepositions आए हैं। हम हिन्दी के किसी वाक्य में ‘में’ देखकर अंग्रेजी के वाक्य में आँख मूंदकर ‘in’ का प्रयोग नहीं कर सकते।

अतः हमें word wise/situation wise यह जानना आवश्यक है कि किस word के बाद कौन Preposition इच्छित अर्थ के लिए उपयुक्त होगा। इसके लिए केवल Certain Rules की जानकारी ही पर्याप्त नहीं है, बल्कि सतत अभ्यास के माध्यम से यह कंठस्थ कर लेना आवश्यक है कि किस word के बाद कौन-सा Preposition देना Suitable होगा। Confusion की स्थिति में अविलम्ब Dictionary Cousult करना चाहिए।

Kinds of Prepositions

Prepositions may be classified (affect) into six classes. They are as follows-

1. Single-word/Simple Prepositions:

at, by, in, into, on, of, to, up, for off, out, from, with, till, down, over, under, since, through, plus, minus, past, after, near, like, except.

Examples:

He is at home.

She went by train.

It is half past three.

The road is under repair.

She is very like her mother.

My birthday is near Deepawali.

He achieved success through hard labour.

2. Double Prepositions :

out of, from within, from among, from under, upto, due to, as for.

Examples:

Why was he driven out of the office ?

As for (के विषय में) job, Ritu is doing well.

Anku was selected from among seventy condidates.

A voice came from within my conscientiousness (अंत: करड).

It is up to you to decide.

3. Compound Prepositions :

These prepositions are generally formed by prefixing (उपसर्ग /पूर्वसर्ग लगाकर) a preposition (usually a = no or be = by) to a Noun, an Adjective, an Adverb or a Verb— above, across, along around, among, amongst, below, before, behind, beside, beyond, between, beneath, without, within, underneath (निचे की ओर), inside, outside.

Examples:

He went across the river.
She is among friends now.
The sun was over my head.
We were walking along the road.
I found the letter amongst his papers.

4. Phrase Preposition / Prepositional Phrases :

Aphrase preposition consits of a group of words used with the force of a single preposition. e.g. according to, in place of, in front of, in search of, in quest of, in accordance with, in keeping with, on behalf of, in comparison with, in spite of, in regard to, instead of, owing to, with a view to, with regard to, on account of, in the event of, in order to, in lieu of, in course of, in addition to, by dint of, by virture of, etc.

Example:

The patient is on the point of (के कगार पर) death.

He succeeded by virtue of (के बदौलत) merit (मेधा).

On account of  (के कारण) his old age he left the job.

Soldiers die fighting on behalf of (के लिए) their country.

I have nothing to say with reference to (के सबंध में) this issue (मुद्दा).

5. Participal Prepositions :

Some words which are actually (वस्तुतः) present participles of verbs, are used absolutely (सवतंत्र रूप से) without any noun or pronoun being attached to them. They are used as prepositions and participal prepositions. The are as follows:

(a) Barring :

except for/excepting a part from – (छोड़कर यदि कुछ न हुआ तो)

Barring accident (यदि दुर्घटना यही हुई तो), the parcel will arrive tomorrow.

Barring Dr Sinha (डॉ सिन्हा को छोड़कर), all the teachers were present in the meeting .

Barring a fund crunch (कोष की कमी नहीं हुई तो), the project (प्रकल्प) will be completed on time.

(b)Concerning :

about somebody or something/involving somebody or something .

He asked many questions concerning the future of the business.

The charges (आरोप) concerning his involvement in (संलिप्पता) थे  train robbery (रेल डकैती) are false (मिथ्या). The members asked many questions in the Lower House (लोक सभा) concerning the flood problem of North Bihar.

(c) During :

Within the period of time mentioned— के दौरान/ की अवधि तक निर्दिष्ट कालावधि में-

There are extra trains for Kolkata during Durgapuja.

During the summer holidays, we went swimming everyday.

We will go home during Ramadan (the 9th month of the Islamic year, when Muslims do not eat or drink between SUNRISE and SUNSET)

(d) Excepting: except सिवा/को छोड़कर

I swim everyday excepting sundays.
Everybody excepting him supported my proposal.
Excepting false assurances (आश्वासन), he gave me nothing.

(e) Not with standing: in spite of/ despite something- के बावजूद

The bad weather notwithstanding, the programme was a great success.

Notwithstanding some major financial problems, the project was an immediate success.

We went to see the show, my objections (आपत्ति) notwithstanding.

The motion (प्रस्ताव) was passed, our objection notwithstanding.

(f) Pending : While waiting for something to happen/until something happens—लंबित रखते हुए

He is being held in jail pending hearing (सुनवाई).
The guilty (दोषी) was released on bail (जमानत पर छूट गया) pending further inquiries (अग्रिम जाँच-पड़ताल).
She received a She received a four-year sentence 9सजा) and is currently out on bail (अभी जमानत पर बाहर) pending appeal (निर्णय पर पुनर्विचार के लिए  अनुरोध).

(g) Regarding/Respecting : about or relating to something – के सम्बन्ध में

Call me if you have any problem regarding/respecting your work.
Regarding/Respecting the child’s whereabouts (पता -ठिकाना), I shall inform you within a weak.

(h) Touching : in reference to/concerning के विषय संदर्भ में

Touching this matter, I have not decided anything so far. (अभी तक)
There has been an objection (आपत्ति) touching the last of proposed (प्रस्तावित) budget

6. Disguised Prepositions : The weakened forms (शब्द का बलाघातिन उचारण)

of the prepositions on or of come under Disguised prepositions.
He went out a hunting (= on hunting).
They have gone a fishing (= on fishing).
It is five o’clock (= of the clock).

fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions with answers

Position of Prepositions

Preposition प्रायः किसी Noun या Pronoun के पहले आकर उस Noun या Pronoun का संबंध Sentence के अन्य शब्दों से दर्शाता है;

जैसे-

The book is on the table.

यहाँ ‘on’ Preposition है। यह table जो Noun है, के पहले आया है और यह दो Nouns ‘book’ and ‘table’ के बीच relation show करता है। यहाँ एक बात ध्यान में रखना चाहिए कि जिस Noun/Pronoun के पहले Preposition आता है वह Noun/Pronoun उस Preposition का Object कहलाता है, जैसे- ‘table”on Preposition का object है। कुछ और Examples लें-
She came into the room.

यहाँ ‘into’ Preposition है। यह Noun ‘room’ के पहले आया है। यह Noun ‘room’ और verb ‘came’ के बीच relation show करता है।
He is fond of walking.

यहाँ ‘of ‘Preposition है। यह gerund ‘walking’ के पहले आया है। Gerund Noun की तरह कार्य करता है। यहाँ Preposition of noun-equivalent ‘walking’ और adjective ‘fond’ के बीच relation show करता है।
He is afraid of me.

यहाँ ‘of ‘ Preposition है। यह pronoun ‘me’ और adjective afraid’ के बीच relation show करता है।

इस प्रकार यह स्पष्ट है कि Preposition किसी Noun या Pronoun के पहले आकर उस Noun या Pronoun का सम्बन्ध Sentence के अन्य शब्दों से दर्शाता है।

लेकिन Preposition का प्रयोग हमेशा Noun या Pronoun के पहले ही हो, यह आवश्यक नहीं है। नीचे दिए गए परिस्थितियों में Preposition का प्रयोग Sentence में अन्य स्थानों पर भी हो सकता है |

1. जब कोई Sentence Active Voice में होता है, Preposition Noun/Pronoun पहले आता है और वह (Noun/Pronoun) Object of the verb के रूप में काम करता है;

जैसे-

The police will look into this case.

यहाँ पर ‘This case’ केवल Preposition ‘into’ का object नहीं है, बल्कि यह Verb ‘look’ का भी Object है।
लेकिन Passive Voice में Preposition को Verb के बाद रखा जाता है;

जैसे-

They laugh at her.
This case will be looked into.
She is laughed at.

लेकिन यदि Active Sentence में Preposition का प्रयोग Object of the verb के लिए नहीं बल्कि some other noun or pronoun के लिए किया गया हो तो इसका (Preposition का) स्थान नहीं shift करता है;

जैसे-

They will complete this work before dusk.
This work will be completed before dusk.

( इस Sentence में Preposition ‘before’ का प्रयोग Object of the verb (this work), के लिए नहीं किया गया है बल्कि इसका प्रयोग एक अन्य Noun (dusk) के लिए किया गया है। इसलिए preposition before’ का Position नहीं shift किया है।)

2. यदि Relative Pronoun जिससे कि कोई Clause शुरू होता हो, Objective Case में रहे, तो Preposition का प्रयोग या तो उस Relative Pronoun के पहले होता है या Verb के बाद;

जैसे- 

The boy about whom you are talking is intelligent.

इस Sentence में ‘About’ Preposition है ‘whom’ Pronoun ‘whoʻका objective case है| Preposition ‘About’ Relative Pronoun ‘whom’ के पहले आया है।

इस Preposition का प्रयोग Verb talking’ के बाद भी किया जा सकता है; लेकिन इस case में ‘whom की जगह पर ‘who’ का प्रयोग किया जाएगा;

जैसे-

The boy who are you talking about is intelligent.

इसी प्रकार-

The knife with which you are cutting is sharp.
The knife which you are cutting with is sharp.

(यहाँ ‘which objective case में है। यह Preposition ‘with’ का Object है।

The pen with which you are writing is costly.
The pen which you are writing with is costly.
The house in which I live is very comfortable.
The house which I live in is very comfortable.

प्यानवें। ऊपर दिए गए Sentences जिनमें Prepositions का प्रयोग Verbs के बाद किया गया है; में Relative Pronouns को drop किया जा सकता है,

जैसे-

The boy who are you talking about is intelligent.
= The boy you are talking about is intelligent.
The knife which you are cutting with is sharp
= The knife you are cutting with is sharp.

3. यदि Relative Pronoun Possessive Case में हो, तो Preposition का प्रयोग Possessive Relative Pronoun के पहले होता है या Verb के बाद;

जैसे-

The man in whose problem you are interested is a perfect gentleman.
( यहाँ Relative Pronoun ‘whose’ Possessive Case में है।)
The man whose problem you are interested in is a perfect gentleman.

4. जब Object रूप में कोई Interrogative Pronoun का प्रयोग किया जाता है, तो Preposition को प्रायः Sentence/Clause के अंत में रखा जाता है;

जैसे-

What are you looking at?  (at is used for what)
What are you thinking of ?  (of is used for what)
Who is he laughing at?  (at is used for who)
Whom did you give it to?  (to is used for whom)

ऊपर दिए गए Sentences में प्रयुक्त what, who, तथा व्होम Interrogative  Pronouns है जो Sentence में  प्रयुक्त Prepositions के objects है।

5. जब Object Relative Pronoun ‘thať रहे तब Preposition को Sentence/Clause के अंत में रखा जाता है;

जैसे-

This is the song that I am fond of.
Here is the pen that you have asked for.

6. जब कोई Infinitive का प्रयोग Object के रूप में किया गया हो तब Preposition का प्रयोग Infinitive के बाद किया जाता है;

जैसे-

I need something to write with.
It is a beautiful house to live in.

7. यदि Am/Is/ Are/Was/Were का प्रयोग Main Verb के रूप में हो तो Preposition अंत में आता है;

जैसे-

Who is it for? / What is she like?/ What was it about?

8. Wh-questions तथा Relative Clauses में Preposition को पहले भी रखा जा सकता है;

जैसे-

At what time is the Prime Minister coming ?
On which train is the Principal travelling?

Prepositions : Various Meanings and Correct Usage.

1. About से बोध होता है:

(a) के बारे में के संबंध में के विषय में-

I know everything about him.
Tell me about this case in detail.

(b) बाहर से चारों ओर यानी around के sense में-

He had a belt about (= around) his waist.
Draw a circle about (= around) this triangle

(c) आसन्न/लगभग/करीब-करीब के sense में-

It is about ten o’clock. /The train is about to start.

(d)में लगा हुआ / में व्यस्त के sense में-

What are you about ? (क्या कर रहे हो?)
People were going about their daily business.

(e) सलाह लेने या देने के sense में-

How about going for a walk ?
What about a break (लघु विश्राम)?

(f) किसी वस्तु के Purpose को describe करने के sense में—

Movies are all about making money these days.
What was all that about?
(= What was the reason for what has just happened ?)

(g) इधर-उधर के sense में-

We wandered about the garden an hour or so (लगभग एक घंटा).
The police looked about the spot.

2 Above से बोध होता है।

(a) के ऊपर (लेकिन सटा हुआ नहीं)-Higher than

We must have a roof above our head.
We were flying above the clouds.

(b) अपने से ऊपर से ऊपर

A soldier should value (मूल्यवान समझना) honour above life.
The water came above our knees.

(c) के ऊपर 

He is above suspicion. (= He is completely trusted.)
This car is above me. (= too costly for me to buy)

3. After से बोध होता है:

(a) बाद में, के उपरांत  (showing sequence of time/place.)

He came after the programme was over.
From Hazipur, Patna comes after the Ganga river.

(b) के बावजूद-Inspite of के sense में-

After all my care it was stolen.
So you made it after all (आखिरकार) !

(c) की खोज में | के फेर में | पकड़ने के लिए

The policemen ran after the thief.
He is after a job at our place.

(d) के अनुसार /की शैली में (In the style of sb./sth.)

These poems have been written after William Wordsworth.
We named the baby Hanshi after her elder sister.

(e) पीछे (क्रम के संदर्भ में)

Your name comes after mine in the list.
He left first and his son left after him.

(f) मनपसंद-

This car is after my heart.

(g) के बारे में-He enquired after your health.

(h) Phrasal terms में-

I have told you time after time (ar-OT) not to do that.
Village after village was destroyed.

4. Against से बोध होता है :

(a) के विरुद्ध (Opposing or disagreeing with sb/sth.)
We must fight against terrorism.
One should not go against law.

(b) ‘पर’/’से सटकर’/ सटाकर

The ladder was placed against the wall.
He was leaning against the table.

(c) के वास्ते (in preparation for/in anticipation of)

The government should take precaution (एहतियात) against flood.
Tetvac is a vaccine against tetanus.

(d) की तुलना में-

What is the rate of exchange against the dollar?
Her milky white complexion becomes prominent against the
black colour of her sari.

(e) किसी व्यक्ति, वस्तु के पक्ष में/ के कारण-

Payments should be made only against cheques. (favouring cheques)
Payment has been made against all his dues. (because of his dues)

5. Across से बोध होता है।

(a) एक छोर से दूसरे छोर तक (From one side to the other side)

I can swim across the Ganga. (from one bank to the other)
There is a bridge across the Ganga in Patna.

(b) के उस पार (on the other side of something)

There is a park across the road.
My house is just across the field.

(c) शरीर के किसी अंग पर (on or over a part of the body)

He slapped him across the face. (= on the face)
The shirt is too tight across the shoulders.

(d) किसी स्थान के प्रत्येक हिस्से में / व्यक्तियों के पूरे समूह में (in every part of a place, group of people, throughout.)

There is a turmoil against the government all across the state.
this custom is practised across the tribal community

6. Along से बोध होता है:

(a) किनारे-किनारे (in the same line)

He was walking along the road.

(b) किसी चीज के एक छोर से दूसरी छोर तक या दूसरी छोर की ओर तक (from one end to or towards the other end of sth.)

I looked along the park to see if he was there.

(c) एक कतार में (in a line that follows the side of something long)

Houses had been built along both sides of the road.

(d) किसी खास जगह पर या बगल में (at a particular point on or beside something long)

You will find my chamber (कक्ष) just along the corridor (गलियारा) of the main building.

(e) Along + with-‘के साथ-साथ’ के अर्थ में

Ritika went to England along with her brother.
She achieved fame along with money.

7. At से बोध होता है:

(a) निश्चित समय (Point of time)-

We left at 2 o’clock.
He came at midnight/ at dusk/at daybreak/ at dawn/at noon लेकिन
in the morning/in the evening/in the afternoon का प्रयोग किया जाता है|

(b) निश्चित जगह (where sth/sb is or where something happens)

My house is situated at the corner of the street.
I met her at the airport.

(c) छोटे स्थान (small places)

He lives at Rajgir.
She lives in London (बड़े स्थान के लिए “in’ का प्रयोग होता है।)
I live at Kankarbagh in Patna.

लेकिन I live in Kankarbagh./I live in his house व्यक्ति जिस स्थान
रहता है उसके साथ ‘in’ और दूर की जगहों के लिए at आता है।

(d) कीमत /दर /चाल (Price/Rate/Speed)

Sugar sells at forty rupees a kilo.
He bought the book at a high price.
I borrowed money from him at 5% interest.
The car was running at full speed.

(e) की उम्र में (to state the age at which sb does sth.)

She got married at 25.
He left school at the age of 15.

(f) (कार्य) में रत  (to say where sb works or studies)

He is at work. / She is at play.
He is at Oxford. (= Oxford University)

(g) दिशा/ लक्ष्य का बोध (in the direction of or towards sb/sth.)

What are you looking at?
Somebody threw rotten eggs at the leader.

(h) कारण बतलाने का बोध(to show the cause of something)

She was delighted at the result,
They were impatient at the delay,

(i) कुछ Adjectives के साथ दक्षता या कमी का बोध (Used with Adjectives to show how well sb does sth.)

He is good at English. /She is poor at Mathematics.

(j ) Superlatives के साथ, – at least, at most, at the worst, at its (his, their etc.) best.

The garden is at its most beautiful in March.
He was at his worst last year.

(k) कुछ और प्रयोग -at leisure, al war, al peace, at once, at any rate,

 8. Between, Among, Amongst:

(a) Between का प्रयोग दो व्यक्तियों / वस्तुओं के लिए होता है;

जैसे-

Divide these mangoes between Rishu and Shivam.
Divide these apples between you and me.

(b) Between का प्रयोग समय | स्थान के दो विन्दुओं / या दो घटनाओं को express करने के लिए होता है;

जैसे-

He may come between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m. (8 a.m. to 9 a.m. is also correct)
He may come any day between Monday and Thursday.
A lot of changes have taken place between the two World Wars.
People generally get married between the ages of 25 and 30.
The border between India and Pakistan must be sealed.

(c) Between का प्रयोग दो या दो से अधिक व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के बीच पारस्परिक संबंध (Reciprocal Relationship)express करने के लिए किया जाता है;

जैसे-

There is co-operation between the two/three/four friends.
They drank a bottle of juice between them.(shared a bottle of juice)
There is a treaty (संधि) between the three/four…great powers.

ध्यान दें:
>>  Between के बाद हमेशा Objective Case के Pronoun का प्रयोग होता है न कि Nominative case का|
>>  Between के बाद Each/Every का प्रयोग नहीं होता है। Among और अमोग्स्त में कोई अंतर नहीं है लेकिन Amongst का प्रयोग अब नहीं के बराबर होता है। इसके जगह पर ‘Among’ का ही प्रयोग होता है।
>> Between का प्रयोग जहाँ दो व्यक्तियों/ वस्तुओं के लिए होता है, वहीं Among का प्रयोग दो से अधिक व्यक्तियों / वस्तुओं के लिए होता है;

जैसे-

Divide these mangoes among all the children.                                                                                                                                    Distribute these sweets among all the students .

9. Before से बोय होता है :

(a) के सामने (In front of)

The accused was produced before the court.
The result of the examination is before us.

(b) के पहले (Earlier than sb/sth)

Gandhijee was born before Sardar Patel.
Complete this work before 10 o’clock.

(c) अधिक पसंद (In preference to)

his self-interest (स्वार्थ)  before anything else.
I would choose death before dishonour (अपयश).
 

10.Behind से बोध होता है :

(a) पीछे छिपा हुआ  (Hidden by sb/sth)

The sun was behind the clouds. (=hidden by the clouds.)
There is a tree behind my house. (at the back of my house and hidden from it.)

(b) Making less progress के sense में-

The train is running behind schedule (समयसारणी).
He is behind other students in the class.  (=making less progress than ओठेर्स)

(c) पीछे (In the context of time)

Our school days will soon be far behind us.

(d) उत्तरदायी/कारण बनना (Responsible for starting or developing something)

There is always some woman behind one’s success.  (woman is responsible for one’s success,)
Daud Ibrahim is behind Mumbai blast.  (Daud Ibrahim is responsible for starting the plot of blast)

(e) सहायता / स्वीकृति (Giving support to or approval of sb/sth.)

Mukul has always been behind me in hours of need.  (=has always supported me)
Don’t worry. I shall be behind your demands.  (= I will support your demands)

11. Beyond से बोध होता है :

(a) उस पार/उस तरफ / उससे आगे (On the farther side of)

Don’t go beyond the school campus.
There is a temple beyond my village.

(b) के बाहर /के परे (Out of access, capacity etc.)

We should not spend beyond our income.
His teaching skill is beyond praise.
The situation is beyond control.

12. Below :

(a) At a lower position or level than somebody/something (किसी व्यक्ति वस्तु की तुलना में निम्न स्तर का—इस अर्थ में)-

He wears his kurta below his knees.
Please do not write below this line.
Mohan dived (गोता लगाया) below the surface of the water.

(b) of a lower standard or amount/rank than sb/sth. (किसी व्यक्ति वस्तु की तुलना में निम्न स्तर का, या मात्रा का)

Your performance is below average.
This job is below my dignity (गरिमा)
She is below her brother in merit.
A clerk is below a manager.

13. Beneath  से बोध होता है :

(a) किसी चीज के नीचे (Under something)

I found the purse beneath the cushion.
The thief hid her ornaments beneath a heap of garbage.

(b) Of a lower standard/not good enough for sb. (निम्नस्तर होना या किसी के लिए बेहतर न होना)

She has married beneath her. (= She has married a man of lower status)
To talk to a person like him is beneath my dignity.

ध्यान दें: 

यहाँ beneath की जगह पर below’ का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है।

14. But से बोध होता है : को छोड़कर / के अतिरिक्त (Except/Apart from)

He is nothing but a rascal.
(वह शरारती के अतिरिक्त और कुछ नहीं है, यानी बहुत शरारती है।)

Shylock would have nothing but a pound of flesh.
The problem is anything but easy.
In this house you will get nothing but trouble.
Take the first turning but one. (= not the first but the one after it)
He came last but one in the race. (= He was not last but next to last)

15. By से बोध होता है:

(a) के समीप / के किनारे (Nearness in place)
Come and sit by me. (= by my side)

(b) तक यानी समय से पहले (Not later than the time mentioned)

I will have written this book by January.
He will reach here by tomorrow evening.

(C) के द्वारा/ से (Agent, Agency or Means)

The streets were lighted by electricity.
The money was stolen by the cashier.
The food was cooked by her.

(d) के अनुसार (In accordance with)

What is the time by your watch?
By my watch it is 10 o’clock.

(e) मात्रा (The degree or amount of something)

The bullet missed him by two inches.
He is taller than his brother by three inches.

(f) के हिसाब से (To show the period और quantity that is used for buying, selling or measuring something)

I hired a taxi by the day. (जैसे एक दिन के लिए दो सौ रुपये)

He engaged a typist by the month.
He sells cloth by the metre/bananas by the dozen.

(g) का नाम लेकर (In oaths)

He always swears by God.
She swears by you all the time.

16. With से बोध होता है:

(a) से / के द्वारा / के जरिए (साधन-Instrument/Material)

The robber killed him with a dagger (instrument)
on The robber was killed by him. (agent)
He is writing with a pen/pencil.
She is feeding the child with a spoon.
She filled the pot with milk.
We hear with our ears /eat with our mouths/ see with
He is covered with dust from head to foot.

(b) के साथ/एक साथ / साथ-साथ (Togetherness of some kind)

He lives with me.
She arrived with her parents/luggage/friends.

(c) के साथ (Having or carrying Something)

The man with a gun is a hunter.
She is lying in bed with fever.
The girl with blue eyes is an actress.

(d) से/ के कारण (Because of/As a result of)

He is ill with fever. (as a result of)
The children are singing with joy. (because of/ as a result of)

(e) के समर्थन में /से सहमत (In support of)

We are all with him. (in his support)
The whole country is with Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.

(f) विरोध में (In opposition to sb/sth)

The two countries are at war with each other.
The two boys are fighting with each other.

(g) के बावजूद (In spite of)

With all his demerits he is a fast worker. (=in spite of all his demerits)
With all its drawbacks (कमिया) the project is useful.

(h) जुदाई का भाव (separation)

A miser does not like to part with his money.
He parted with his friend yesterday.

(i) उसी दिशा में (In the same direction)

We should learn to live with the time. = go in the same direction as
the time/world is going)
He is sailing with the wind.

17. suside and Besides

Beside का अर्थ होता है-by the side of (बगल में, समीप) और इससे स्थान का बोध होता है। Besides का अर्थ होता है-‘in addition to’ (अतिरिक्त अलावे) He is sitting beside me. (by my side – मेरे बगल में )

Besides moral support, he gave me money also. (moral support के अलावे पैसा भी दिया) Beside’ का प्रयोग तुलना (Comparison) के sense में भी किया जाता है,

जैसे-
Your shirt is cheaper beside mine.  (in comparison to mine)
He looks smart beside his brother.  (in comparison with his brother)

18. Since, For, From:

Since का प्रयोग, ‘Point of Time’ के साथ किया जाता है जबकि ‘For’ का प्रयोग ‘ Period of Time’ के साथ;

जैसे-

I have not gone there since Tuesday.  (point of time)
I have not gone there for a month.  (period of time)

“From का प्रयोग भी ‘since की तरह ही ‘Point of Time के साथ किया जाता है लेकिन since के पहले Verb हमेशा Perfect/Perfect Continuous tense में रहता है जबकि “from’ का प्रयोग किसी भी Tense में किया जाता है। दूसरा अंतर यह है कि ‘since’s प्रयोग केवल ‘with reference to past time’ के साथ होता है जबकि ‘from’ का प्रयोग ‘with reference to future and present time’ के साथ भी होता है;

जैसे-

She has been absent since Monday
I have been teaching him since 1995.
I shall start this project from next month.
He started this project from last Monday.
The employees will be given new pay scale from next year.

इस difference के अतिरिक्त इन Prepositions के further use को देखें- For से बोध होता है-

(a) के लिए के उद्देश्य से के वास्ते / के कारण (Indicating cause, reason or purpose)

I read for pleasure.
He works for money.
Mohan got a prize for bravery.
You will suffer for your bad conduct.
I walk in the morning for improving my health.

(b) के बावजूद  (In spite of)

For all his wealth, he is unhappy. (In spite of all his wealth)
I like him for all his faults. (”    ”  ”   ”faults)

(c) के लिहाज से (In view of)

She is rather tall for her age. (उम्र के लिहाज से वह ज्यादा लम्बी है।)
The wages are poor for the work. (काम के लिहाज से मजदूरी कम है।)

(d) के पछ में (In support of/In favour of)

I will vote for you.
I am for people who are honest and laborious. (in support of honest and laborious people)

(e) के लिए (Indicating personal benefit)

This is for you.
These sweets are for children.

(f) की अवधि तक / में से (Period of Time)

He is going away for a few days.
The thief was imprisoned for life.
The little girl is dancing for an hour.

(g) के लिए/ की ओर  (Indicating direction/destination)

Let us start for home.
This train is bound for Delhi.
She is destined for a journalist. (going to be a journalist)

(h) की ओर/समर्थन में (On be half of/ In support of)

We should fight for (= on behalf of) the poor.
I am for this proposal. (in support of this proposal)

(i) के बदले में (In exchange of something)

I paid fifty rupees for this book.
She exchanged this pen for another pen.
Food for work programme is still continuing.

From का प्रयोग:

(a) आरंभ  (something starts, in place or time)

He has come from Lucknow.
He was blind from his birth.
He will start from here at 8 a.m.
The Rajdhani Express normally starts from platform No. 5.

(b) के कारण (Because of/As a result of)

He is suffering from jaundice,
She died from loss of blood.

(c) से अलग होना/बच निकलना (sense of separation)

The mango fell from the tree.
I want to live far from din and bustle (शोर-शराबा).

(d) दूर (How far)

My village is five miles from the town.
It is only a few steps from here to the स्कूल।

(e) देखते हुए (Judging/Considering)

From his appearance, he looks stupid. (रूप-रंग से वह मूर्ख लगता है।)
From examination point of view it is worthless. (परीक्षा की दृष्टि से यह बेकार है।)

(f) से बना हुआ (The material something is made of)

Flour is made from wheat.
Sweets are made from milk.

(g) उतपत्ति /स्रोत  (Source /Origin)

The Ganga comes out from the Himalayas.
These lines have been taken from the Ramcharitmanas.

(h) तुलना में (As being unlike)

She is different from her mother in behaviour.
The English are different from the French.

(i) निष्कर्ष (The reason for arriving at a judgement)

You can say from his face that he is innocent.
We can judge a man from his manner of talking.
(1) Some Other Usage of From’
He saved थे The Second World War lasted from 1939 to 1945.
(The range of something
The law and order situation has gone from bad to worse
(change of state

19. In का प्रयोग ‘में’ के अर्थ में होता है।

(a) में (Used for big places)

We live in India. He lives in Kathmandu.
लेकिन  He lives in a village.
She lives in this room.
जो व्यक्ति जहाँ रहता है उस जगह के प्रायः in का प्रयोग होता है।

(b) में (wider extent of time.)

It is cold in winter./I walk in the morning.
He came here in January/in 1995.

(c) अवस्था के sense में (The state or condition)

He is in trouble/in debt/in doubt/in danger/in a hurry.
She is in good health.

(d) के भीतर (within/consist of/in)

There are seven days in a week.
Life consists in pain and pleasure,
She is in the room.

(e) पोशाक में (Wearing)

She was dressed in silk sari.
The peon was in uniform./ in a red coat.

(f) के द्वारा (with or by means of)

Write it in pencil/in ink. (Use ink/pencil to write.)
It was printed in red.
Paint this picture in golden colour.

(g) पेशा या कार्य (Occupation or activity)

He is in the navy. / Sonia is in politics.

(h) दिशा (Direction)

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

(i) की अवधि के अन्तर्गत (During a period of time)

My village made some progrees in 2005. (during the period of 2005)
Life in the the 21st century is full of tension.

20. Into का प्रयोग भी ‘में’ के अर्थ में होता है, किन्तु इससे आगे की ओर गति (Motion towards) का बोध होता है।

(a) में (बाहर से भीतर की ओर जाने का भाव जिससे Motion का बोध हो ।)

The frog jumped into the well.
The teacher went into the classroom.
He got into my car.

(b) में बदल देना (Change from one state to another)

Translate it into English.
Snow melts into water.
The saint turned the mice into a princess.
Divide it into five equal parts.
The fruit can be made into jam.

(c) की दिशा में (in the direction of)

If you look into her heart, you will find that she is sad,
Do not move into the sun barefooted (खाली पाँव).

(d) उसमें होना (So as to be in)

He went into the business and then into politics.

(e) To a point at which one hits something / somebody.

The driver lost his control and the bus ran into a shop.

(f) समय के अर्थ में (To a point during a period)

He works so late into the night.

(g) किसी कार्य का परिणाम (The result of an action)

He was beaten into silence. (He became silent as a result of beating.)

(h) संबंधित (About or Concerning)

An inquiry into his role in the scam (घोटाला) has been set up.

21. Of का मूल अर्थ होता है ‘का / के / की’ या ‘से लेकिन इससे अनेक भाव व्यक्त होते हैं-

(a) अधिकार | सम्बन्ध | रखना / मालिक होना (Belonging/Relating to somebody)

This is the house of Pratik.
The poems of Dinkar are intresting.
Dashrath was the king of Ayodhaya.

(b) बना होना (Made from)

The chair is made of wood.
She is woman of wisdom.

(c) मात्रा (quantity)/माप तोल (weight and measurement.)

Give me five kilos of sugar.
We crossed five miles of the bad road.

(d) का/के/की (showing quality)

Sardar Patel was a leader of strong determination.
Portia was a lady of sharp intellect.

(e) स्त्रोत (Origin/source)

She is the girl of a cultured (सुसंस्कृत) family.
He comes of a rich family.

(f) द्वारा के अर्थ में (By)

I have read the plays of Shakespeare. (all his plays)
The paintings of M.F. Hussain are world famous. (all his paintings)

(g) के कारण (Because of)

He died of cholera/fever/tuberculosis etc.

(h) के बारे में (About)

Do you know anything of me? (= about me)
I know nothing of her (= about her)

22. Off का प्रयोग से’ के अर्थ में separation (अलगाव) व्यक्त करने के लिए होता है-

(a) से/ स्थान से अलग होने का बोध (Away from)

He jumped off the horse.
He fell off the tree.
We are still fifty kilometres off Ranchi. (away from Ranchi)

(b) Separate or Remove के Sense में –

The child is eating off the plate.
Take the curtain off their hooks.
He is sleeping half on and half off the sofa.
He has got his beard off (has got it removed).
Your name has been struck off from the list.

(c) किसी निर्धारित लछ्य (Away from work, duty, aim)

The speaker is going off the subject.
The peon is oft duty today without any information

(d) कुछ दूरी पर होने का भाव (Away from a place)

The temple is just a little way off the river.
My house is situated off the main road.

(e) दाम में गिरावट के अर्थ में (Reduction in price)

They have declared 30% off their goods to promote their sale.
They knocked Rs. 1,000 off (कटौती) the car.

(f) अनिच्छा व्यक्त करने के अर्थ में (Not liking or wanting something that usually one eats/does/uses)

He is off drink for a month. (He will not take drinks for a month.)
Some people are off meat during Durgapuja.

ध्यान दे:

On/Off का प्रयोग Adverb के समान भी होता है और तब इसके अर्थ में परिवर्तन हो जाता है; जैसे-

Switch off the light-बत्ती बुझा दो ।
Switch on the light- बत्ती जला दो।
It rained on and off (रूक-रूक कर) all day |

23. On, Upon

इन दोनों Prepositions से ‘above (ऊपर) और touching’ (स्पश) का भाव व्यक्त होता है।

जैसे-

The book is on the table. किताब table के ऊपर है और
The book is upon the table. इसे touch कर रहा है।

लेकिन कभी-कभी इनसे different meaning का expression होता है-
On से ‘rest (विराम) का भाव व्यक्त होता है जबकि Upon से ‘motion’ (गति) का;

जैसे-

He is sitting on a bench.  (Sense of rest)
Our enemies came upon us.  (Sense of motion)

इसके अतिरिक्त ‘on’ के प्रयोग से निम्नलिखित बोध होता है-

(a) के बहुत नजदीक (close to a place)

Patna is on the bank of the Ganga.

(b) समय (बिल्कुल ठीक समय पर, न पहले न बाद में)

He came on Monday / on the 2nd of January.
ध्यान दे: In time से बोध होता है- समय से कुछ पहले, अर्थात् देर से नहीं।)

(c) के विषय में / के सम्बन्ध में (About/Concerning)

He is writing an essay on “Pollution”.
The speaker spoke an hour on the topic.

(d) के जरिये (By means of/Dependent on)

A car runs on petrol. / A cow lives on grass.
He spoke on the telephone. /I heard it on the radio.

(e) का सदस्य होने के Sense में

He was on the committee. / She was on the jury.

(f) कारण, परिणाम (As a result of)

He has been sent there on transfer.
She acted on the lawyer’s advice.

24. Over का अर्थ होता है ‘के ऊपर’ किन्तु इससे अनेक प्रकार के भाव व्यक्त होते हैं-

(a) के ऊपर (सटा हुआ / छूता हुआ)

The mother put a blanket over the sleeping child.
He wore an overcoat over his suit.

(b) के ऊपर (सटा हुआ नहीं/ छूता हुआ नहीं)

There was a lamp hanging over the table.
There was an umbrella over his head.

(c) एक किनारे से दूसरे-किनारे तक (From one side of something to the other across something)

There is a bridge over the river.
They had a bunderful view over the sea.

(d) के उस पार (On the far or opposite side of something)

He lives over the road. (on the opposite side of the road)
It is difficult to go over the hill.

(e) शासन नियंत्रण करने के लिए (Rule/Control)

Akbar ruled over a vast empire (सम्राज्य).
A teacher has control over students.

(f) अधिक (More than a particular time/amount/cost etc.)

I have overtwo thousand books.
He stayed in America over a month.
He is over sixty

(g) के क्रम में, में  (During/In the course)

We will discuss it over lunch.
He became rich over a period of ten years.

(h) सभी भागों में अधिकांश भागों से होकर (All or most part of something)

सभाभागाम
Snow is falling all over the country.
They have travelled all over the world.

25. To से बोध होता है-

(a) की ओर (In a direction of something; towards something)

He is going to the zoo. (towards, in the direction of the zoo)
The mango fell to the ground.
Go straight and turn to the right.

(b) तक (As far as)

The water came to our necks.  (as far as our necks)
This road goes to the station.

(c) की अवस्था तक (Reaching a particular state)

The thief was beaten to death.  (to the state of death)
They fought to the finish.

(d) के प्रति (To, Towards)

We should be kind to/towards animals.
She is very sympathetic to/towards the poor.

(e) उद्देश्य (Purpose/Intention)

He invited me to dinner/tea/lunch.
They came to see me.

(f) के बीच (Between)

He fell into ten to fifteen feet of ditch.
He is 40 to 45. (वह 40 से 45 साल का है।)

(g) सम्बन्ध (Attachment / Connection / Relationship / Concerning
something.)

We are related to each other.
The thief was tied to a pole and beaten ruthlessly (निर्दयता से).
He has been married to a woman who is ten years senior to him.
E.M. Forster’s novels have many references to Indian culture,

(h) स्थान पर (In the position of, situated in the direction mentioned
something)

Bangladesh is to the east of India.
The Himalayas lie to the north of India.

(i) जहा तक मेरी बात है (somebody’s attitude or reaction)

To me this is quite worthless.  (reaction)
Non-vegetarian food is not to my taste. (attitude)

26. Towards/To ward से बोध होता है –

(a) की ओर (In the direction of …)

Our jawans are marching towards/toward the border.
(in the direction of the border)
The C.R.P.Fare heading towards / toward the camps of the terrorists.

(b) के प्रति (To, Towards)

We should be kind to/towards the poor.

(c) निकट : समय के संदर्भ में (Close or closer to a point in time)

I will go there towards/toward the end of January
It is towards dusk. (It is about dusk/close to dusk)
My project work is towards completion. (near completion)

(d) के लिए (In aid of)

We must contribute towards the Prime Minister Relief Fund.
The money I have earned in business will go towards the Poor Boys’
Fund.

27. Under से बोध होता है –

(a) के नीचे (स्थान के संदर्भ में A position that is below something)

The cat was under the table.
I found my purse under the carpet.

(b) से कम (Less than /Younger than)

Nobody under 18 is allowed to apply for this post.
Many boys under 20 are addicted () to alcohol.

(c) के पद के निचे (Lower in rank than somebody)

He has a staff of 25 working under him.
Noone under the rank of professor may hold this post.

(d) के अधीन (Governed or led by somebody)

The college runs under a management.

The B.J.P formed the government under Modi’s leadership.

(e)दशा/अवस्था का बोध (Being in a state of something)

The hotel is still under construction (निर्मातधीन).
His case is under consideration (विचाराधीन).
The matter is under investigation (अन्वेषणाधीन).

28. Through से बोध होता है-

(a) से होकर (From one end or side to the other -एक छोर से दूसरे छोर तक)

The Ganga flows through Bhagalpur.
I have passed through many difficulties.
The bullet went straight through him.

(b) शुरू से अंत तक (From beginning to end of an activity, a situation or a period of time)

I have gone through the Ramayan.
I shall not stay through the night.  (The whole night)

(c) के जरिए (By means of)

I got this news through a newspaper
I heard their conversation through the wall.

(d) कारण/परिणामस्वरूप (Cause/Motive/Reason)

The accident happened through carelessness.
The patient died through wrong diagnosis (रोग-निर्णय).
It is through honest labour that we can hope to succeed.

(e) अवरोध / अवस्था / जाँच इत्यादि को सफलतापूर्वक समाप्त करना| (Past a barrier, stage or test)

Go through this gate and you will see the post office on your left.
First I have to get through the exams.
I had never have got through it all (a difficult situation) without you.

29. Within

जब In और within का प्रयोग Time express करने के लिए किया जाता है तो इनके अर्थ में अंतर आ जाता है;

जैसे-

He will come in a week. (at the end of a week)
He will come within a week. (= before the close of a week)

Some Other Usage of Within’

My school is within a walking distance from my house.   (not farther than a walking distance)
A motor car is not within my reach.   (I cannot buy it, as it is beyond my reach)
These problems are within my reach.  (I can solve them)
This noise is coming from within her house,   (inside something)
The frustration within the young will lead to rebellion.   (inside some body)

30. Without का अर्थ होता है ‘के बिना’

We cannot live without air/water/food.
I can not see without my glasses,
She left without informing

31. Out से बोध होता है-

(a) में से दूर (Away from the inside of a place or thing)

He is out of the town.
He opened the box and a frog jumped out.

(b) स्रोत (Source) का भाव

Success comes out of hard labour.
The statue is made out of bronze.
I paid for the damage out of my savings.
We got the truth out of her.

(c) प्रयोजन/ कारण (Motive/Cause)

I asked out of curiosity (उत्सुकता).

He helped me out of kindness.
I did it out of necessity.
She touched my feet out of respect.

(d) अनेक में से (From a particular number or set)

He scored six out of ten.
Five out of ten people think the Prime Minister should resign.

(e) दशा/ अवस्था परिवर्तन (Somebody/Something is no longer in a particular state or condition)

The patient is out of danger.
Our team is out of the tournament.
The peon opened the gate and the car was soon out of sight.

Some Special Notes on the Usage of Some Prepositions:

1. Around/Round : Preposition के रूप में का समान अर्थ है।

(a) इनका प्रयोग ‘Surrounding Somebody/Something’ के sense में किया जाता है;

जैसे
A group of students is standing around/round the Principal.
There are trees around round my school.

(b) इनका प्रयोग ‘on, to or from other side of something’ के sense में किया जाता है;

जैसे-
The story of this film moves around /round the tragic life of its hero.
His house has been built around / round a large campus.

(c) इनका प्रयोग in a circle के sense में किया जाता है;

जैसे-
We walk around/round the park.

(d) इनका प्रयोग ‘in or at many places in an area’ के sense में किया जाता है; जैसे-
The tourists walked around/round the town for five hours. (walked to many places)

2. TII/Until : Preposition के रूप में Till और Until का समान अर्थ है। इनका प्रयोग ‘Up to the time’ के sense में किया जाता है;

जैसे-

We shall wait here till/until 8 p.m. (up to 8 p.m.)
The market remains open till/until 9 p.m. (up to 9p.m.)

3. Than : Than का प्रयोग किया जाता है ‘to introduce the second part of a comparison’;

जैसे-

I like milk more than curd.
I would rather email than phone.
It never takes more than two hours.
It is less than a mile to the airport.
There were fewer than 10 people there.
Hardly had he arrived than the problem started.
No sooner had I sat down than there was a loud knock at the door

4. Up : इससे बोध होता है

(a) ऊंची जगह पर/को (to or in a higher place)

The ball is up in the air.
It would take two hours to climb up the hill.

(b) उस स्थान की ओर जहाँ से कोई नदी निकलती है-

(Towards a place where a river starts)
They rowed up (नाव खेकर) the Ganga for hours.  (In the direction of the place of its origin)

(c) ‘Down’ के साथ इसका प्रयोग एक दिशा और पुनः विपरीत दिशा (In one direction and then in opposite direction) के sense में किया जाता है जैसे-

The dogs are running up and down the street.
He is walking up and down the road.

5. Except : इससे बोध होता है ‘but or apart from’;

जैसे-

She gave me nothing except pain. (उसने मुझे दर्द के सिवा कुछ नही दिया।)
We work every day except sunday.
They all were invited except Mohan.

6. Inside/Out side: ये दोनों आपस में Opposite words है |

(a) Inside से ‘inner part of something/ within something का बोध होता है जबकि Outside से ‘On or to a place on the outside of something का

जैसे-

You cannot park your car inside the compound.
You can park your car outside the compound.

(b) Inside से बोध होता है ‘in less than the amount of time mentioned

जैसे-
The annual budget is not likely to be prepared inside a week.  (within a week)

(c) Outside से बोध होता है ‘away from’ or ‘not in a particular place;

जैसे-
My hostel is situated just outside the school.
It is the costliest hotel outside Nainital.

(d) Outside से बोध होता है-‘not part of something’,

जैसे-
These topics are outside my syllabus.
The matter is outside my area of responsibility

(e) Outside का प्रयोग ‘Beyod’ के sense में होता है;

जैसे-
Mathematics is outside my grasp.

7. During, For

Preposition of Time के रूप में ‘during’ और ‘for’ द्वारा expressed meaning में difference है ‘During’ का प्रयोग ‘throughout’ (a period of  time taken by an action or event) के sense में किया जाता है;

जैसे-
The prices of things shoot up during the War.  (throughout the war)
During का दूसरा अर्थ के दौरान’ (In the course of) होता है; जैसे-
The robbers were arrested during the night.  (at a particular hour at night)

ध्यान दे:

>> For का प्रयोग definite period of time के लिए होता है; जैसे—for two years, for five months.
During answers the question—when ? For answers the question-“How long ?’
When did you accomplish the work ?—’During the vacation.
How long will you stay there ?-For two weeks.

>>  जब Intransitive Verb के साथ कोई Noun/Pronoun आता है तब verb तथा Noun /Pronoun के बीच में Preposition अवश्य आता है; जैसे-
She is going to Delhi.

जब Transitive Verb के साथ कोई Noun/Pronoun आता है तब Verb तथा Noun/Pronoun के बीच में Preposition नहीं आता है,

जैसे-

She reads a book.
I know him very well.
Wordsworth describes Nature.
The teacher is discussing the problem.

कुछ ऐसे Words हैं जिनके बाद Infinitive to + V1) का प्रयोग कभी नहीं होता। उस Condition में उनके बाद Preposition + V4 का प्रयोग होता है,

जैसे-

His father prevented him from taking alcohol.
They assisted me in completing this work.
She is right in holding that view.
I am tired of travelling.
He thinks of going abroad.

Mistaken Use of Prepositions

1. नीचे दिए गए शब्दों के पहले Preposition at, in, on, का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है—

Examples:

Incorrect Correct
I saw him in last year. I saw him last year.
He will come here at every morning. He will come here every morning.
I saw them on last Tuesday. I saw them last Tuesday.

किन्तु यदि Noun पहले और Adjective बाद में प्रयुक्त हो तो Preposition का प्रयोग किया जाता है;

जैसे-

I saw him on Saturday next.

2. Tomorrow, Yesterday तथा Today के पहले कोई भी Time Expressing Prepositions जैसे-at, on, in का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है :

Examples:

Incorrect Correct
I saw on today him. I saw him today.
She promised me to meet on tomorrow. She promised me to meet tomorrow.
 He came to me on yesterday evening. He came to me yesterday evening.
They came here in a week ago. They came here a week ago.
She came here in this morning. She came here this morning,

ध्यान दें:
>> Yesterday तथा tomorrow के बाद morning, afternoon तथा evening लगता है किन्तु today के बाद नहीं। Today morning/afternoon/evening के बदले ,morning/this afternoon/this evening का प्रयोग होता है

>> Tomorrow right का प्रयोग ठीक है लेकिन Today night के बदले Tonight ,Yesterday night के बदले Last night तथा Last evening के बदले Yesterday evening कहा जाता है।

3. Come, go, arrive, get, send, take, bring के बाद यदि Home रहे तो Home के पहले कोई Preposition नहीं लगता। यहाँ Home Adverb है;

जैसे-

I am going to home.यहाँ Preposition’to’ का प्रयोग गलत है correct sentence होगा -I am going home.

लेकिन यदि ‘Home’ के पहले my, your, his, her, their, Mohan’s, uncle’s इत्यादि रहे तो, ‘Home’ के पहले ‘to’ का प्रयोग होगा; जैसे—I am going to my home.He is going to his home. I shall go to his home. He will go to his brother’s /uncle’s home.

4. अगर Home’ का अर्थ उस स्थान से हो जहाँ कोई व्यक्ति रहता है या काम करता है तो ‘Home’ के पहले atका प्रयोग होता है;

जैसे-

I shall stay at home.
He is at home.

5. Ask, enter, discuss, reach, attack, describe, answer, approach, resemble तथा climb जैसे Verbs के बाद Preposition का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है ।

Examples:

Incorrect Correct
The teacher asked to me a question. The teacher asked me a question.
They entered into the hall. They entered the hall,
We discussed about the case. We discussed the case.
He reached at the station. He reached the station.
The army attacked on the town.  The army attacked the town.
He described about the incident. He described the incident.
The son resembles to his father. The son resembles his father.

ध्यान दें:

– ‘भाग लेने’ या ‘शुरू करने के अर्थ में Enter के साथ into का प्रयोग होता है;

जैसे-

Let us not enter into details at this stage.
They entered into the spirit of the occasion.
We entered into an agreement/a discussion/negotiations.

6. Go, come, write, listen, speak, reply, talk, complain, explain तथा say के बाद अगर किसी person को address किया गया हो, तो इन verbs के बाद ‘to’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है;

जैसे-

We go to Mohan every day.
She writes tome every month.
They listened tome patienly.
May I speak/talk/complain to the manager?

लेकिन tell, order, invite, request, compel तथा allow के बाद object + to प्रयोग किया जाता है;

जैसे-

He told me to see the Principal.
They ordered me to come next week.
I requested him to come soon.
They invited me to lunch.
The Headmaster allowed the peon to go home.
The Chairman compelled them to resign

7. Expressions containing words like height, length, shape, size, colour, age, area, volume प्रायः Sentence के Subject से Verb be से  बिना Preposition के जुड़े होते हैं;

जैसे-
She is the same height  as her sister.
What length  is the main road ?
It is the same shape  as your almirah.
Both the kitchen are the same size.
What colour are her eyes ?

8. Expressions like ‘four times a day’, ‘fifty miles an hour’ thirty rupees a kilo’ इत्यादि में Prepostion के बदले a/an का प्रयोग होता है;

जैसे-

Take this medicine four times a day,
Don’t drive more than fifty miles an hour.
Sugar is sold forty rupees a kilo.
My mother fasts (उपवास) twice a month.
He visits England once a year.

9. The preposition at is usually left out in (At) what time?

What time do you get up?
What time does he go to school ?
What time does the Rajdhani Express arrive?

ध्यान दें:

Prepositions Adverb
He walked about/around the park. He walked about/around.
She came the day before yesterday.  She could not come before.
He is in his room. He has come in.
The driver jumed of the car. The wheel came off.
The TV is on the table. The TV is on.
We will live after lunch. We could come the week after.
There is a bridge over the river. The car rolled over and over.
I have not eaten since breakfast.  I have not met her since(तब से अब तक)
The sun went down the hill. The sun went down.

इस प्रकार हम देखते हैं कि Usage of Preposition थोड़ा difficult लेकिन काफी interesting है। यह English Language की beauty है। इस पर command करने के लिए निरंतर अभ्यास की जरूरत है तथा इसका प्रयोग हम आजीवन सीखते रहते हैं। नीचे कुछ Important words और उनके बाद प्रयोग में आनेवाले Prepositions की सूची दी जा रही है। इसे बार-बार पढ़कर प्रयोग में लाने का प्रयास करें तब ही Usage of Prepositions पर आपकी पकड़ मजबूत होगी ।

Leave a Comment