Direct and Indirect Speech/Narration|example of direct and indirect speech

Direct and Indirect Speech/Narration|example of direct and indirect speech

किसी वक्ता (Speaker) के कथन (Speech) को दो तरीके से व्यक्त (Express) किया जाता है-

1. Direct Speech (प्रत्यक्ष कथन) और 2. Indirect Speech (अप्रत्यक्ष कथन)

1. Direct Speech :

जब किसी Speaker के मूल कथन (Actual words) को हम ज्यों का त्यों (हू-ब-हू) उसी के शब्दों में व्यक्त करते हैं तब उस कथन को Direct Speech कहा जाता है। Direct speech हमेशा Inverted Commas (“….”) के अन्दर रखा जाता है;

जैसे-

Ram said to Shyam, “I am busy today.”

उपरोक्त Sentence में speaker के Actual words में बिना कोई परिवर्तन किए Inverted Commas के अन्दर रखा गया है। अतः यह कथन Direct Speech है |

2. Indirect Speech :

जब किसी speaker के मूल कथन में हम कुछ हेर-फेर कर उसके आशय या सारांश (substance of the speaker’s actual words) को अपने शब्दों में व्यक्त करते हैं तब उस कथन को Indirect speech कहा जाता है। Indirect Speech Inverted Commas के अन्दर नहीं रखा जाता है;

जैसे-

Ram told Shyam that he was busy that day.

उपरोक्त Sentence में speaker के Actual words को repeat नहीं किया गया है, बल्कि उसमें हेर-फेर कर उसके आशय या सारांश को अपने शब्दों में व्यक्त किया गया है। अतः यह कथन Indirect speech है।

इस प्रकार हम देखते हैं कि Indirect Speech का प्रयोग होने पर कथन की भाषा में परिवर्तन हो जाता है। यह परिवर्तन (change) कैसे होता है, इसका अध्ययन हम Rules of Narration के अन्तर्गत करते हैं। Rules को explain करने के पहले इससे सम्बन्धित कुछ Terms को समझ लेना आवश्यक है। ये Terms इस प्रकार हैं-

1. Reporting Verb:

Inverted Commas के बाहर जो Sentence रहता हैं, उसके Verb को Reporting Verb कहते हैं;

जैसे –

Ram said to shyam, “I am busy today.” यहाँ ‘said’ Reporting Verb  हैं।

2. Reporting Speech:

Inverted Commas के अंदर जो Sentence रहता हैं, उसे Reporting Speech कहते हैं; जैसे –

Ram said to shyam, “I am busy today.” यहाँ “I am busy today.” Reporting Speech हैं।

3. Verb of the Reporting Speech:

Reporting Speech में प्रयुक्त Verb को Verb of the Reporting Speech  कहते हैं; जैसे –

Ram said to shyam, “I am busy today.” यहाँ am Verb of the Reporting Speech  हैं।

How to Change into Indirect Form of Speech

Direct speech को Indirect Speech में change करने के लिए General Rules और कुछ Special Rules का सहारा लेना पड़ता है। General Rules वैसे Rules को कहते हैं, जो हर प्रकार के Sentences के साथ लागू किए जाते हैं, जबकि Special Rules विभिन्न प्रकार के Sentences के लिए अलग-अलग हैं। General Rules को आसानी से समझने के लिए इसे तीन भागों में इस प्रकार विभाजित कर सकते हैं-

1.  Change of Person
2. Change of Tense
3. Change of Other Parts of Speech

1. Change of Person :

Direct speech को Indirect Speech में change करने के लिए Reported Speech (Inverted Commas के अन्दर) में प्रयुक्त Pronouns को निम्नलिखित प्रकार से Change करते हैं-

1. First Person को Reporting Verb के Subject के अनुसार
2. Second Person को Reporting Verb के Object के अनुसार
3. Third Person-No Change.

इसे याद रखने के लिए नीचे दिए गए Formula को ध्यान में रखें । इसे SON- Formula भी कहते हैं।

1 2 3
S O N

1. का मतलब है First Person, S का मतलब है Subject, अर्थात् First Person ‘Subject के अनुसार Change करता है।
2. का मतलब है Second Person, O का मतलब है Object, अर्थात् Second Person ‘Object’ के अनुसार Change करता है।
3. का मतलब है Third Person, N का मतलब है ‘No’, अर्थात् Third Person में कोई Change नहीं होता है।

ध्यान दें : Person Change करने पर इसका Number और Case वही रहता है, जो Inverted Commas के अन्दर रहता है।

2. change of Tense:

(a) यदि Reporting Verb, Present या future Tense में हो, तो Reported speech के Tense में कोई Change नहीं होता है Sense के अनुसार केवल Pronouns change कर दिए जाते हैं Pronouns को Change करने के लिए हम SON- Formula का उपयोग करते हैं |

(b)  यदि Reporting Verb Past Tense में हो तो Reported Speech का Tense निम्नलिखित प्रकार से Change करता है –

Direct Indirect
Present Indefinite past Indefinite
Present Imperfect/Continuous past Imperfect/Continuous
Present Perfect past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous past Perfect Continuous
past Indefinite past Perfect
past Imperfect/Continuous past Perfect Continuous

example of direct and indirect speech|Verb निम्नलिखित प्रकार से Change करता है —

Direct Indirect
Shall Should
Will Would
Can Could
May Might
Am/Is/Are Was /Were
Have/Has Had
Was/Were had been
Has to/Have to/Had to had  to
Could/ Should/Would/Might Generally No change

3. Change of Other Part of Speech: यदि Reporting Verb Past Tense में हो, तब Reported Speech में प्रयुक्त निकटता सूचक शब्द (Words Showing Nearness) दुरी सूचक शब्द (Words Showing Distance) में Change  कर दिए जाते है;

जैसे –

Words Showing Nearness Words Showing Distance
This That
These Those
Here There
Hence Thence
Now Then
Thus So
Today That day
Yesterday The previous day/the day before
Tomorrow The next day/The following day

1. Change of Person:

निम्नलिखित Sentences में Pronouns के Persons किस प्रकार Change करते है, इसका अध्ययन करें-

1.Direct : He said to me, “I am writing.”
Indirect : He told me that he was writing.

2. Direct : He said to us, “You are writing”
Indirect : He told us that we were writing.

3. Direct : He said to you, “You are writing.
Indirect : He told you that you were writing.

4. Direct : He said to me, “You are writing.”
Indirect : He said to me that I was writing.

5. Direct : He said, “You have passed the examination.”
Indirect : He said that he/I (the person spoken to) had passed the examination.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples से यह स्पष्ट होता है कि

(a) Reported speech का First Person उसी Person में Change  जिस Person में Reporting Verb का Subject रहेगा।

(b) Reported Speech का Second Person उसी Person में Change जिस Person में Reporting Verb का Object रहेगा।

(c) यदि Reporting Verb का Object नहीं दिया रहे, तो Reported Speech के Second Person को Third Person में Change कर देना चाहिए, जैसा कि Sentence No. 5 में किया गया है।

ध्यान दें:

Reported Speech का Third Person कभी नहीं Change करता है।
>>  Reported Speech में यदि “we’ का प्रयोग मानव-जाति के लिए Person नहीं Change करेगा;

जैसे-

Direct : He said to me, “We are mortal.”
Indirect : He told me that we are mortal.”

Direct : He said to me, “We shall have a bumper crop this year.
Indirect : He told me that we would have a bumper crop that year.

यदि किसी News paper का editor Reported speech में “we’, ‘us’ या ‘our का प्रयोग करे, तो ये बदलकर it’ या ‘its’ हो जाते हैं,

जैसे-

Direct : The Hindustan Times says, “Our office will remain closed on Sunday next.”
Indirect : The Hindustan Times says that its office will remain closed on Sunday next.

Direct : The Hindu says, “We are going to publish the results of election in our Sunday’s paper.”
Indirect : The Hindu says that it is going to publish the results of election in its Sunday’s paper.

यदि Reporting Verb के Subject और Object दोनों Third Person में हों. तो Reported Speech के First औरSecond Person, Third Person में Change करेंगे। किन्तु अर्थ की स्पष्टता के लिए Pronoun से सम्बन्धित Noun/Pronoun का उल्लेख करना आवश्यक है;

जैसे-

Direct : Mohan said to Sohan, “You are wrong, but I am right”.
Indirect : Mohan told Sohan that he (Sohan) was wrong but he (Mohan) was right.

यदि Indirect Speech में he के बाद ‘Sohan’ या Mohan brackets में न लिखा जाय, तो यह कभी नहीं स्पष्ट होगा कि Mohan ने गलत काम किया या Sohan ने ।

2. Change of Tense :

निम्नलिखित Sentences को Indirect Speech में Change करने पर Tense किस प्रकार Change करता है; इसका अध्ययन करें-

1. Direct : Chandan says, “There is no sugar in the tea.”
Indirect : Chandan says that there is no sugar in the tea.

2. Direct : The teacher says, “The boy was intelligent.”
Indirect : The teacher says that the boy was intelligent.

3. Direct : Guddu says, “Tinku will do well.”
Indirect : Guddu says that Tinku will do well.

4. Direct : Nilam will say, “Breakfast is ready.”
Indirect : Nilam will say that breakfast is ready.

5. Direct : Aman will say, “Om was playing”.
Indirect : Aman will say that Om was playing.

ऊपर दिए गए Sentences को समझने पर यह स्पष्ट होता है कि यदि Reporting Verb Present या Future Tense में हों, तो  Verb of the Reported Speech के Tense में कोई Change नहीं होता है।

निम्नलिखित Sentences, जिनका Reporting Verb, Past Tense में है, को Indirect Speech में change करने पर Tense किस प्रकार change करते हैं; इसे समझें-

1. The Present Indefinite Changes into The Past Indefinite

Direct: Guddu said, “Chandan works very hard.
Indirect : Guddu said that Chandan worked very hard.

Direct: Vikash said, “Tinku takes exercise daily.”
Indirect : Vikash said that Tinku took exercise daily.

2. The Present Continuous changes into The Past Continuous.

Direct : Pratik said, “Satyajeet is working hard.”
Indirect : Pratik said that Satyajeet was working hard.

Direct : She said, “The children are eating apples.”
Indirect : She said that the children were eating apples.

3. The Present Perfect changes into The Past Perfect.

Direct: Neha said, “Nupur has done her home-work.”
Indirect : Neha said, that Nupur had done her home-work.

Direct: Nupur said, “Neha has written the letter.”
Indirect : Nupur said that Neha had written the letter.

4. The Present Perfect Continuous changes into The Past Perfect Continuous.

Direct : Priya said, “Ratna has been reading for two hours.”
Indirect : Priya said that Ratna had been reading for two hours. 1

Direct : Chiku said, “Tinku has been playing cricket.”
Indirect : Chiku said that Tinku had been playing cricket.

5. The Past Indefinite Change into The Past Perfect.

Direct :Ajay said, “Vijay went to Ghaziabad.”
Indirect : Ajay said that Vijay had gone to Ghaziabad.

Direct : Karim said, “Rahim came at night.”
Indirect : Karim said that Rahim had come at night.

6. The Past Continuous changes into Past Perfect Continuous.

Direct : Mukul said, “Sunil was teaching Mathematics.”
Indirect : Mukul said that Sunil had been teaching Mathematics

Direct : Ravi said, “Khushi was drinking milk.”
Indirect : Ravi said that Khushi had been drinking milk.

इसी प्रकार अन्य निकटता सूचक शब्द दूरी सूचक शब्द में change कर दिए जाते है। जिसकी चर्चा पहले ही हो चुकी है।

ध्यान दें :

जब Reporting Verb say/says/said रहे और उसके बाद Object रहे तो Indirect Speech में इन्हें क्रमशः Tell/Tells/Told में change कर दिया जाता है। अगर Object न रहे, तो Reporting Verb में कोई Change नहीं होता है।अब तक जितने भी Rules बताए गए हैं वे सभी प्रकार के Sentences में लागू किए जा हैं।

इसीलिए इन्हें General Rules. कहते हैं। अब आगे जो Rules बताए जाएँगे उन्हें हम Special Rules कहेंगे क्योंकि ये Rules भिन्न-भिन्न प्रकार के Sentences के लिए भिन्न-भिन्न हैं। Direct Speech को Indirect Speech में सुविधापूर्वक कैसे Change किया जाय, इसे ध्यान में रखते हुए Sentences को चौदह भागों में विभक्त कर, प्रत्येक का वर्णन, पहचान एवं उसके नियम दिए जा रहे हैं।

1. Assertive Sentences with Reporting Verb in the Present or Future Tense.

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें –

1. Direct : He says to me, “You are a good student.”
Indirect : He tells me that I am a good student.

2.Direct: Sohan says to you, “You are gentle”.
Indirect : Sohan tells you that you are gentle.

3. Direct: I will say to Mohan, “I am wiser than you.”
Indirect : I will tell Mohan that I am wiser than he.

4. Direct : She says to Ram, “If you give me a pen I shall give you a book.”
Indirect : She tells Ram that if he gives her a pen she will give him a book.

ध्यान दें : Tell/Tells/Told के बाद Preposition to’ का प्रयोग नहीं होता है।

ऊपर दिए गए Examples को समझने पर निम्नलिखित बातें मालूम होती हैं-

Reported speech में यदि कोई बात सामान्य रूप से कही जाए तो उसे Assertive Sentence कहते हैं।
>> Assertive Sentence को Direct से Indirect में change करते Inverted Commas को हटा दिया जाता है और Reported Speech के पहले Conjunction That का प्रयोग होता है।

>> यदि Reporting Verb Present या Future Tense में हो, तो Reported Speech का Tense नहीं Change किया जाता है, लेकिन sense के अनुसार Pronouns को change कर दिया जाता है तथा Verb भी Subject के अनुसार change कर दिया जाता है; जैसे—you are के स्थान पर Tam’, ‘you were’ के स्थान पर ‘he was’ आदि ।

2. Assertive Sentences with Reporting Verbs in the Past Tense:

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें-

1. Direct : I said, “Iam speaking the truth.”
Indirect : I said that I was speaking the truth.

2. Direct : He said to me, “My father will come tomorrow.”
Indirect : He told me that his father would come the next day,

3. Direct : The Headmaster said, “Boys fail because they don’t labour.”
Indirect : The Headmaster said that boys failed because they din’t labour.

4. Direct : We said, “They can’t cross the river unless the boatmen help them.”
Indirect : We said that they couldn’t cross the river unless the boatmen helped them.

5. Direct: He said to me, “I had no time for you.”
Indirect : He told me that he had had no time for me.

6. Direct: He said, “I had to do the work.”
Indirect : He said that he had had to do the work.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples को समझने पर निम्नलिखित बातें मालूम होती हैं-

(a) Inverted Commas दिए जाते हैं और Reported speech के पहले Conjunctioin that’ का प्रयोग होता है।
(b) यदि Reporting Verb Past Tense में हो, तो Reported Speech का Tense Change कर देते हैं।
(c) यदि Reporting Verb Past Tense में हो, तो Reported Speech में प्रयोग किए हुए कुछ शब्द change कर जाते हैं।

देखें Point 3 Change of Other Parts of Speech.

(d) Reporting Verb ‘said’ या ‘told’ दोनों में से कोई भी हो सकता है, लेकिन ध्यान रहे कि said के बाद to का प्रयोग अवश्य होगा, लेकिन Told के बाद to का प्रयोग कभी नहीं होता है।

3. Assertive Sentences with Reported Speech Having Universal Truth, Habitual Fact, Proverbial Truth, Historical Fact etc.

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें-
1. Direct: The teacher said, “The sun rises in the east.”
Indirect : The teacher said that the sun rises in the east.

2. Direct : My mother told me, “Honesty is the best policy.”
Indirect : My mother told me that honesty is the best policy.

3. Direct : She said, “Two and two is four.”
Indirect : She said that two and two is four.

4. Direct : He said, “Rome was not built in a day.”
Indirect : He said that Rome was not built in a day.

5. Direct : He said, “India became free on 15th August 1947.”
Indirect : He said that India became free on 15th August 1947.

6. Direct : He said, “Karim was singing while Rahim was dancing.”
Indirect : He said that Karim was singing while Rahim was dancing.

7. Direct : She said to me, “If I were a bird, I would fly to you.”
Indirect : She told me that if she were a bird, she would fly to me.

8. Direct : He said, “I wish I were an actor.”
Indirect : He said that he were an actor. He wished that he were an actor.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples से निम्नलिखित बातें मालूम होती हैं।

(a) यदि Reported Speech में Universal truth, General Truth, Proverbial Truth, Habitual Fact, Imaginary Situation, Historical Fact इत्यादि रहे तो Direct से Indirect form of speech में change करने पर इनका Tense : नही change किया जाता है।

(b) Example No. 6 से यह पता चलता है कि यदि Reported Speech में दो कार्य एक ही समय सम्पन्न होने का बोध हो, तो Past Indefinite or Continuous Tense नही Change होता है।

(c) Example No. 7 और 8 से यह पता चलता है कि यदि Reported speech में Improbable or Hypothetical (असम्भव या काल्पनिक) Condition को Express करने वाला Sentence हो, तो Past Indefinite Tense नहीं change होता है।

(d) Inverted Commas हटा दिए जाते हैं और Reported Speech के पहले Conjunction ‘that’ का प्रयोग होता है।

4. Interrogative Sentences Beginning with a Helping Verb:

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें-

1. Direct: He said to me, “Can you give me your pen ?”
Indirect : He asked me if / whether I could give him my pen.

2. Direct: The teacher said to students, “Do you remember the lesson well ?”
Indirect : The teacher enquired of (or asked) the students if they remembered the lesson well.

3. Direct : The traveller said to me, “Could you tell me the way to the nearest hotel ?”
Indirect : The traveller asked me if I could tell him the way to the nearest hotel.

4. Direct : He said to me, “Must I leave for England tomorrow?”
Indirect : He asked me if he had to leave for England the next day.

5. Direct : I said to him, “Need I talk to her ?”
Indirect : I asked him if I had to talk to her.

6. Direct: “Do you know her ?”, said he to me,
Indirect : He asked me if I knew her.

7. Direct : Mohan says, “Does Ram not tell a lie ?”
Indirect : Mohan asks if Ram does not tell a lie.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples को समझने पर निम्नलिखित बातें मालूम होती हैं—Interrogative Sentences को Direct से Indirect Speech मे Change करते समय General Rules के अनुसार Verb का Tense और Pronoun का Person इत्यादि Change करने के बाद कुछ और Rules का पालन करना पड़ता है जो इस प्रकार है-

(a) Reporting Verb को sense के अनुसार ‘Ask’ ‘Enquire’, ‘Demand’, ‘Wonder इत्यादि में Change कर दिया जाता है।

(b) Inverted Commas हटा दिए जाते हैं और Reported Speech के पहले if या whether शब्द का प्रयोग होता है। (लेकिन if या whether का प्रयोग तभी होगा जब Interrogative Sentence किसी Helping Verb is, are, am, was, were, has, have, had, do,

does, did, shall, will, can, could, should, would, may, might, must इत्यादि से शुरू हो ।)

(c) Interrogative Sentences को Assertive Sentence में Change कर दिया जाता है। यानी If या whether के बाद पहले Subject तब Verb रखा जाता है।

(d) अगर Interrogative Sentence do/does/did से शुरू हो, तो Indirect Speech में ये शब्द हटा दिए जाते हैं, जैसा कि Sentence (2) में किया गया है।

लेकिन यदि Interrogative Sentence Negative हो, तो ये नहीं हटाए जाते हैं। इन्हें ‘Not शब्द के पहले रखा जाता है, जैसा कि Sentence (7) में किया गया है।

(e) Note of Interrogation (?)—प्रश्नवाचक चिह्न के स्थान पर Full Stop (.) का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

ध्यान दें : Interrogative Sentences में Reported Speech को Introduce करने के लिए that का प्रयोग कभी नहीं किया जाता है।

5. Interrogative Sentences beginning with an Interrogative Pronoun or an Interrogative Adverb.

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें –

1. Direct : He said to me, “What do you want?”
Indirect : He asked me what I wanted.

2. Direct: She asked me, “Where do you live ?”
Indirect : She asked me where I lived.

3. Direct They said to me, “How far is Mumbai from Kolkata ?”
Indirect : They asked me/enquired of me how far Mumbai was from Kolkata.

4. Direct : He said to us, “Who is scolding you so long as I am staying with you ?”
Indirect : He asked us who was scolding us so long as he was staying with us.

5. Direct : He asked, “What happened ?”
Indirect : He asked what had happened.

6. Direct : She said to me, “Who are you?”
Indirect : She asked me who I was.

7. Direct: Rajani said to Ritika, “At what time did you go to the market yesterday ?”
Indirect : Rajani asked Ritika (as to) at what time she had gone to the market the previous day.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples के अध्ययन से यह स्पष्ट होता है कि यदि Interrogative Pronoun (who, which, what etc.) या Interrogative Adverb (Where, How, Why, When etc.) से Reported speech हो,तो Direct से Indirect Speech में Change करते समय General Rules के अलावे निम्नलिखित Rules का पालन करना पड़ता है

(a) Reporting Verb’say’ या ‘tell के स्थान पर ask/enquire of/ demand या कोई अन्य suitable verb दिया जाता है।

(b) Inverted Commas हटा दिए जाते हैं। Inverted Commas के स्थान पर कोई शब्द देना आवश्यक नहीं है, किन्तु कहीं कहीं sense के अनुसार ‘as to’ का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है

(c) Affirmative-Interrogative Sentence में अगर Auxiliary Verb do/ does did का प्रयोग हुआ हो, तो उसे हटा देना चाहिए। Negative-Interrogative को change करने पर Auxiliary Verb का प्रयोग होता है।

(d) Interrogative Sentence को Change कर Assertive दिया जाता है Note of Interrogation (?) के स्थान पर Full Stop (.) दिया जाता है।

ध्यान दें :

Ask की जगह पर inquire (also enquire) या inquire of का प्रयोग होता है। Inquire का प्रयोग तब होगा जब उसके बाद Object का प्रयोग न करना हो और Inquire of का प्रयोग तब होगा जब उसके बाद Object का प्रयोग करना हो; जैसे-

1. Direct : He said to me,”Why are you angry ?”
Indirect : He asked me Why I was angry.

or, He inquired of me (as to) why I was angry.

2. Direct : He said, “Is the train running on time ?”

Indirect : He asked if the train was running on time.
or, He inquired if the train was running on time.

6. Imperative Sentences

Direct and Indirect Speech/Narration|example of direct and indirect speech

1. Direct : The teacher said to the boys, “Write it at once.”
Indirect : The teacher ordered / asked/told the boys to write it at once.

2. Direct: The peon said to the Principal, “Grant me leave for two days, please”
Indirect : The peon requested the Principal to grant him leave for two days.

3. Direct: He said to me, “Help your neighbour.”
Indirect : He advised me to help my neighbour.

4. Direct : The teacher said to the boys, “Don’t make a noise.”
Indirect: The teacher ordered the boys not to make a noise.

5. Direct : I shall tell him, “Do not waste money,”
Indirect : I shall forbid him to waste money,

or, I shall ask him not to waste money,
or, I shall advise him not to waste money.

6. Direct : He said to the students, “Be quiet and listen to my words patiently.” (od )
Indirect : He urged/advised/told the students to be quiet and listen to his words patiently,

7. Direct: Mohan said to me, “Would you like to have a cup of tea with me?”
Indirect : Mohan warmly invited me to have a cup of tea with him.

ध्यान दें : ठीक ऊपर दिए गए Sentence (7) से Affectionate Invitation का भाव व्यक्त होता है / would से शुरू होने के बावजूद भी यह Interrogative Sentence नहीं है, इसलिए यहाँ If/Whether का प्रयोग नहीं होगा।

8. Direct: He said to me, “Do not smoke.”
Indirect : He forbade me to smoke.
or, He prohibited me from smoking.
or, He advised me not to smoke.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples को समझने से निम्नलिखित बातें मालूम होती हैं-

>>  Imperative Sentences प्रायः Verb से शुरू होते हैं।
>> Imperative Sentences से Order (आदेश), Advice (सलाह) Prohibtion (निषेध), Request (आग्रह) Invitation (आमंत्रण) इत्यादि का भाव व्यक्त होता है।
>> ऐसे Sentences को Direct से Indirect में Change करते समय General Rules के अलावा निम्नलिखित Rules का पालन करना पड़ता है।

(a) Reporting Verb को आवश्यकतानुसार Order, Tell, Ask, Request, Advise, Urge, Forbid, Prohibit, Beg, Command इत्यादि शब्दों में Change कर दिया जाता है।

(b) Reported Speech में Imperative Mood को Infinitive Mood में change कर दिया जाता है अर्थात् जिस Verb से Imperative Sentence शुरू होता है उस Verb के पहले To लगाया जाता है।

(c) यदि Reported speech से Invitation का भाव व्यक्त होता है तो Reporting Verb को invited/warmly invited/cordially invited में Change कर दिया जाता है।

(d) यदि Reported Speech निषेध सूचक (Indicating Prohibition) हो तो उसमें से ‘do not’ शब्द हटा दिया जाता है।

(e) Forbid के बाद ‘to’ और Prohibit के बाद ‘from Verb के पहले लगता है, लेकिन यह ध्यान में रखना चाहिए कि ‘from’ के बाद Verb में ing अवश्य जोड़ा जाएगा और ‘to’ के बाद Verb का मूल रूप यानी v रहेगा।

यदि Imperative Sentence में Subordinate clause attached हो तो, Sub-ordinate clause के Verb का Tense, Reporting Verb के  Tense अनुसार change करेगा; जैसे-

Direct : The Principal said to the teachers, “Revise your courses since the exam is near.’
Indirect : The Principal ordered the teachers to revise their courses since the exam was near.

Some More Hints on Imperative Sentences

(A) Emphatic Imperatives

कुछ Imperative Sentences के पहले ‘Do’ का प्रयोग Sentence को Emphatic (जोरदार) बनाने के लिए किया जाता है। ऐसे Sentences को Indirect Speech में change करते समय ‘Do’ को हटा दिया जाता है; जैसे-

1. Direct : He said to me, “Do cast your vote.”
Indirect : He asked/told / requested me to cast my vote.

2. Direct: I said to her, “Do be regular and punctual.”
Indirect : I requested/advised/told her to be regular and punctual.

(B) Imperatives + Question-Tag

कुछ Imperative Sentences के बाद Questioin-tag आता है । ऐसे Sentences को Indirect speech में change करते समय Question-tag को छोड़ दिया जाता है और Reporting Verb को tell/ask/request/advise इत्यादि में sense के अनुसार Change कर दिया जाता है; जैसे-

1. Direct : She said to me, “Shut the door, will you ?”
Indirect : She requested me to shut the door.

2. Direct : He said to me, “Come on time, will you ?”
Indirect : He asked me to come on time.

3. Direct : Sankalp said to his friend, “Try again, will you ?”
Indirect : Sankalp advised his friend to try again.

7. Optative Sentences

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें

1. Direct : She said to me, “May you live long !”
Indirect : She blessed /wished me that I might live long.

2. Direct: They said, “May God make us happy !”
Indirect : They prayed that God might make them happy.

3. Direct : He said to her, “May you die soon!”
Indirect : He cursed her that she might die soon.

यदि Optative Sentence में May का प्रयोग लुप्त हो यानी नहीं किया गया हो तो उसे Sentence के आरम्भ में जुड़ा हुआ मानें और तब Sentence को Indirect Speech में Change करें; जैसे-

4. Direct : We said, “Long live our President!”
Indirect : We wished that our President might live long.

5.Direct : The saint said, “God save you!”
Indirect : The saint prayed that God might save me.

6. Direct : The leader said, “Farewell, my country men !”
Indirect : The leader bade his countrymen farewell. (भला हो)

ऊपर दिए गए Examples के अध्ययन से निम्नलिखित बातें मालूम होती हैं-

Optative Sentences प्रायः May से शुरू होते हैं और इनसे Wish (इच्छा) Prayer (प्रार्थना) Blessing (आशीर्वाद), Curse (अभिशाप) इत्यादि भावों की अभिव्यक्ति होती है। Optative Sentence को Direct से Indirect speech में Change करते समय General Rules के अलावा निम्नलिखित Rules का सहारा लेना पड़ता है।

(a) Inverted Commas को हटाकर Reported speech के पहले ‘that’ शब्द का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

(b) Reporting Verb को sense के अनुसार wished/prayed/ blessed/cursed/bade इत्यादि में Change किया जाता है।

(c) That के बाद पहले Subject तब ‘May’ के बदले Mightदेकर Note of Exclamation (!) के बदले Full stop (-) का प्रयोग किया जाता है। कहने का तात्पर्य है कि Optative Sentence को Assertive में Change कर दिया जाता है।

(d) अन्य किसी भी Verb का Tense नहीं Change होता है

ध्यान दें : Wish/Pray/Curse के बाद Object का प्रयोग नहीं होता है।

8. Exclamatoy Sentences Expressing Feelings and Emotions of the Mind.

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें—

1.Direct : Shivam said, “Hurrah! we have won the match.”
Indirect : Shivam exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.

2. Direct : She said, “Alas/ Ah! I have lost my gold ring.”
Indirect : She exclaimed with sorrow that she had lost her gold ring-

3. Direct : She said to me, “Pooh! You have again failed in the exam.
Indirect : She exclaimed with contempt that I had again failed in the exam.

4. Direct : The audience said, “Bravo! Well sung, Lata !”
Indirect : The audience applauded Lata, calling out that she had sung well.

5. Direct : He said to me,”Fie! Fie! You rascal goe), you have cheated me.”
Indirect : He called me a rascal and exclaimed with contempt that I had cheated him.

6. “Direct : He said “Nonsense !” (01/aebara)
Indirect : He exclaimed that it was nonsense.

7. Direct : He said, “Enough!”
Indirect : He exclaimed that it was enough.

8. Direct : The teacher said to the boys, “Well done!”
Indirect : The teacher applauded/admired the boys and exclaimed that they had done well.

9. Direct : Mohan said, “Well done / Bravo/Hear ! A grand victory !”
Indirect : Mohan shouted with applause that it was a grand victory.

10. Direct : He said, “Good-bye, my friends !”
Indirect : He bade good-bye to his friends.

11. Direct : She said, “O that I could be young again!”
Indirect : She eagerly wished that she could be young again.

12. Direct : He said, “Would that the king were not so ruthless !”
Indirect : He wished that the king were not so ruthless (Aach).

13. Direct : He said, ‘My God! you have cut your finger.
Indirect : He exclaimed with surprise that I had cut my finger.

14. Direct : He said, “Hello! Where are you going ?”
Indirect : He greeted me and asked where I was going.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples को समझने पर निम्नलिखित बातें मालूम होती हैं-

(a) Exclamatory Sentences से Strong emotion का Expression होता है।

(b) Exclamatory Sentence के शुरू में प्रायः कोई Interjection रहता है अथवा Sentence के अंत में Note of Exclamation (!) रहता है।
(c) Exclamatory Sentence को Direct से Indirect Speech में Change करने के लिए Sense के अनुसार Reporting Verb Change करते रहते हैं। Reported Speech का Form भी काफी कुछ Change कर जाता है; जैसा कि ऊपर दिए गए Examples से स्पष्ट है।

(d) Exclamatory Sentence को Direct से Indirect Speech में Change करते समय Interjectional words हटा दिए जाते हैं और Reporting Verb की जगह पर प्राय: Exclaimed शब्द का प्रयोग होता है। कहीं कहीं sense के अनुसार bid, wish, greet, shout, remark इत्यादि शब्दों का भी प्रयोग होता है।

(e) Exclaimed के बाद आवश्यकतानुसार Feeling को express करने के लिए कोई suitable word का प्रयोग किया जाता है,

जैसे-
1.  Aha! Ha! Hurrah! etc. के लिए Exclaimed with joy
2. Alas! Oh! etc. के लिए Exclaimed with sorrow
3. Oh! what! etc. के लिए Exclaimed with surprise
4. Bravo! Hear ! etc. के लिए Exclaimed with applause.
5. Pooh! Pooh! Fie ! Fie ! etc. के लिए  Exclaimed with contempt

(f) Inverted Commas हटा दिए जाते हैं और Reported Speech के पहले ‘That’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
(g) Sentence के अंत में Full stop (.) का प्रयोग होता है।

9. Exclamatory Sentences Beginning with How; What,”Such’ or So.

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें-

1. Direct : He said, “How beautiful the parrot looks !”
Indirect : He exclaimed with joy that the parrot looked very beautiful

2. Direct : They said, “What a fine picture it is !”
Indirect : They exclaimed with joy that it was a very fine picture.

3. Direct : I said, “What a nuisance !”
Indirect : I exclaimed with annoyance that it was a great/big nuisance.

4. Direct : She said, “How foolish he is !”
Indirect : She exclaimed that he was very foolish.

5. Direct She said, “So dark the night is !”
Indirect : She exclaimed with horror that it was a very dark night.

6. Direct : She said, “How fat the boy is.”
Indirect : She exclaimed with surprise that the boy was very fat.

यदि Exclamation में Subject या Verb लुप्त हो, तो उन्हें अपनी ओर से जोड़ देना चाहिए। जैसे Sentence (3) में Verb was को जोड़ा गया है।

कहीं-कहीं दो Nouns के बीच में And जोड़कर अथवा एक Noun के बाद कोई Adjective देकर आश्चर्य (Surprise) प्रकट करते हैं, ऐसी स्थिति में इसे इस प्रकार चाहिए।

>> कहीं-कहीं दो Nouns के बीच में And जोड़कर अथवा एक Noun के बाद कोई Adjective देकर आश्चर्य (Surprise) प्रकट करते हैं, ऐसी स्थिति में इसे इस प्रकार Indirect Speech में Change किया जाता है। –

7. Direct : “Mohan and a saint !”
Indirect : He exclaimed with surprise that Mohan was regarded as a saint.

8. Direct : “A big school and not a good student !”
Indirect : He exclaimed with surprise that even the big school had no good student.

9. Direct : He said, “A saint and greedy for money !”
Indirect : He exclaimed with surprise that a saint was greedy for money.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples को समझने पर यह पता चलता है कि How, What, Such, या So से शुरू होने वाले Exclamatory Sentences को Direct से Indirect Speech में Change करते समय General Rules के अलावे निम्नलिखित Rules का सहारा लेना पड़ता है—

(a) Reporting Verb को Exclaimed/Exclaimed with joy/Surprise इत्यादि में Change कर दिया जाता है।

(b) Inverted Commas को हटाकर Reported Speech के पहले ‘That शब्द का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

10. Sentences Beginning with a Vocative Case

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें-

1. Direct : The father said “Mohan, you are getting naughty”
Indirect : The father told Mohan that he was getting naughty.

2.Direct : The stranger said to me, “Brother, I have lost my way”.
Indirect : The stranger addressed me as brother and said that he had lost his way,

3. Direct : I said to Sohan,”My friend, you are wasting your money.”
Indirect : I addressed Sohan as friend and said that he was wasting his money.

4. Direct : The leader said to the people, “Brothers and sisters, here I am to help you.”
Indirect : The leader addressed the people as brothers and sisters and said that there he was to help them.

5. Direct : The Teacher said to the wicked boys. “Idiots, stand up on the bench.”
Indirect : The Teacher addressed the wicked boys as idiots and ordered them to stand up on the bench.

6. Direct : I said to Shibu, “Fool, you are talking nonsense.” (अनर्थक)
Indirect : I called Shibu fool and said that he was talking non-sense.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples से यह पता चलता है कि यदि Direct Speech में कोई Case of Address (सम्बोधन कारक) हो, तो उसे Indirect Speech में इस प्रकार Change करते हैं-

(a) यदि Sentence में कोई Proper Noun का Case of Address हो तो, Noun को Indirect Speech में told का object बना देते हैं । जैसा कि Sentence (1) से स्पष्ट है।

(b) यदि Vocative Case में Proper Noun न होकर कोई अन्य Noun हो; जैसे—Brother, Friend, Gentleman, Lady, Father, Mother तो ऐसे words के  पहले Addressed as जोड़कर Verb के पहले रख देते हैं। जैसा कि Sentence 2, 3, 4 और 5 से स्पष्ट है।

(c) यदि कोई प्रशंसा या निन्दासूचक शब्द Vocative Case में रहे, तो Called (Verb) का प्रयोग करते हैं। Called के साथ As का प्रयोग नहीं होता है।

ध्यान दें :

Changed form of Reported Speech को शुरू करने के लिए आवश्यकतानुसार Reporting Verb का प्रयोग किया जाता है क्योंकि Vocative Case के बाद किसी भी प्रकार का Sentence रह सकता है। यदि Sentence Imperative है तो order, Request, Advise, Forbid इत्यादि । यदि Exclamatory है तो Exclaim और यदि Interrogative है तो Ask इत्यादि दिया जाता है।

11. Sentences Beginning with ‘Sir or ‘Madam’

निम्नलिखित Exampels को समझें-

1 Direct : The student said to the teacher, “Sir, may I come in?
Indirect : The student asked the teacher respectfully if he might go in.

2. Direct : The clerk said to the Principal, “Sir, grant me two day’s leave.”
Indirect?: The clerk requested the Principal respectfully to grant him two days’ leave.

3. Direct :She said to her class teacher, “Madam, I have already completed my home-work.”
Indirect : She told her class teacher respectfully that she had  already completed her homework.

4 Direct : He said, “Sir, I have brought my book.”
Indirect : He said respectfully that he had broutht his book.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples को समझने पर केवल दो बातें मालूम होती हैं-

(a) यदि Direct Speech में ‘Sir’ या Madam’ का प्रयोग किया गया हो, तो Indirect Speech में Change करते समय उसके जगह पर ‘Respectfully’ शब्द का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

(b) Reporting Verb को Change करने के लिए यह ध्यान में रखना चाहिए कि “Sir” या ‘Madam’ के बाद किस प्रकार का Sentence है। जिस प्रकार का Sentence रहता है उसी के अनुसार Reporting Verb Change करता है।

12. Sentences Beginning with ‘Please’

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें –

1. Direct : He said to me, “Please bring me a chair.”
Indirect : He requested me to kindly bring him a chair.

2. Direct : We said to him, “Please go there at once.”
Indirect : We requested him to kindly go there at once.

3. Direct : The magician said to the spectators, “Please give me a clap.”
Indirect : The magician requested the spectators to give him a clap.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples के अध्ययन से भी दो बातें मालूम होती हैं—(a) Please से शुरू होने वाले Sentence सामान्यतः Imperative Sentence होते हैं जिनसे विशेष निवेदन (Special Request) और प्रार्थना (Prayer) का बोध होता है। इसलिए Please के जगह पर generally kindly लिखा जाता है।

(b) Please से शुरू होनेवाले Sentence को introduce करने वाले Verb को ‘Request’ या ‘Beg’ में Change कर Reported Speech के Imperative Mood को Infinitive में Change कर दिया जाता है।

ध्यान दें : Kindly शब्द के पहले ‘to’ का प्रयोग होगा, बाद में नहीं/नीचे दिए गए Sentences में Difference पर गौर करें- लिए

(a) They requested me to kindly help her.
(b) They requested me kindly to help her.

Sentence (a) में kindly’ modifies ‘help’ और (b) में Kindly’ modifies ‘requested’.

13. Sentences Beginning with
(A) ‘Let’ as an Order

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें-

L. Direct I said to the servant, “Let the visitor come in.”
Indirect : I ordered the servant to let the visitor come in.

2. Direct :Father said, “Let noone come late.”
Indirect: Father said that noone was to come late.

or, Father ordered not to let anyone to come late,
or, Father ordered not to allow anyone to come late,
or, Father ordered that no one should come late.

3. Direct : The Commander said to the captain, “Let the soldiers pick up their guns and start firing at the enemy.”
Indirect : The Commander ordered/told the captain to let the soldiers pick up their guns and start firing at the enemy.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples से यह स्पष्ट होता है कि कुछ Imperative Sentences Let से शुरू होते हैं और उनसे परोक्ष आज्ञा (Indirect Order/Command) का बोध होता हैं और ऐसी sentences को Direct से Indirect Speech में Change करते समय Reporting Verb ordered/told के बाद ‘to’ जोड़ दिया जाता है।

(B) ‘Let’ as a Proposal

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें

1. Direct : Khushi said to me, “Let us dance together.”
Indirect : Khushi proposed that we should dance together.

2. Direct : Tom said to his friends, “Come, let us watch the film.”
Indirect : Tom proposed to his friends that they should watch the film.

3. Direct : Anwar said to Hasan, “Let us go to market and buy some books.”
Indirect : Anwar proposed to Hasan that they should go to market and buy some books.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples से यह स्पष्ट होता है कि Let + Us construction वाले Sentences से किसी प्रस्ताव (Proposal) का बोध होता है और ऐसे Sentences को Direct से Indirect Speech में निम्नलिखित प्रकार से change किया जाता है—

(a) Reporting Verb को Propose/ Suggest में Change किया जाता है।
(b) Inverted Commas को that में change किया जाता है।
(c) Let को should में change किया जाता है।
(d) Objective Case (us) को Nominative Case (we) में change किया जाता है।
(e) Auxiliary Verb ‘Should’ को Subject के बाद रखकर other words  को रखा जाता है।

(C) Let as a Wish/Desire

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें-
1. Direct : She said, “Let me talk to him.”
Indirect : She wished that she should talk to him.

2. Direct : The servant said, “Let me know my work, Sir”
Indirect : The servant wished that he should know his work.

3. Direct : The beloved said, “Let his soul rest in peace.”
Indirect : The beloved wished that his soul should rest in peace.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples के अध्ययन से यह स्पष्ट होता है कि कुछ वैसे भी Let वाल Sentences होते हैं जिनसे Proposal का बोध नहीं होता। ऐसे Sentences में Let के बाद me, him, them या there be का प्रयोग होता है। ऐसे Sentences से speaker की इच्छा (wish) का बोध होता है। इन्हें Direct से Indirect में निम्नलिखित प्रकार से change करते हैं-

(a) Reporting Verb को wish में Change कर दिया जाता है, क्योंकि ऐसा करने से Speaker की इच्छा या अनुमति माँगने या देने का भाव स्पष्ट हो जाता है।

(b) Inverted Commas को That में Change कर दिया जाता है।

(c) Let को आवश्यकतानुसार Should/Might/Allow इत्यादि में change कर दिया जाता है और Objective Case (me, him, her इत्यादि) को Nominative case (I, he, she इत्यादि) में change कर उसे should के पहले रख दिया जाता है।

(D) Let as a Supposition/Condition

नीचे दिए गए Examples को समझें—

1. Direct : The teacher said, “Let it be a triangle.”
Indirect : The teacher supposed it to be a triangle.

2. Direct : Sumukh said, “Let it rain ever so hard, I will go home today.”
Indirect: Sumukh said that even if it rained hard he would go home that day.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples से दो बातें मालूम होती हैं—

(a) कभी-कभी Let it be या Let there be से शुरू होने पर Sentence से Supposition (कल्पना) का भाव व्यक्त होता है; जैसा कि Sentence (1) से स्पष्ट है। इस प्रकार के Sentence को Direct से Indirect में Change करते समय Reporting Verb को Suppose/या Supposed में Change कर दिया जाता है। तथा Let’ को Drop (लुप्त) कर दिया जाता है।

(b) कुछ ‘Let’ वाले Sentences से Even if (यद्यपि) यानी Condition का भाव व्यक्त होता है। ऐसे Sentences में Let it के बाद Ever so अवश्य आता है। इस प्रकार के Sentences को Direct से Indirect में change करते समय Reporting Verb को ज्यों का त्यों रहने दिया जता है। Inverted Commas को That में change कर दिया जाता है तथा Ever so को Drop (लुप्त) कर दिया जाता है।

14. Sentences Beginning with ‘Yes’ or ‘No’

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें

1. Direct : He said, “Yes, I can do it.”
Indirect : He replied in the affirmative and said that he could do it.

2. Direct : He said to me, “Are you eating sweets ?” I said, “No.”
Indirect : He asked me if I was eating sweets, but I replied in the negative.

3. Direct : He said to me, “Are you going to the cinema ?” I said, “Yes”:
Indirect : He asked me if I was going to the cinema and I replied in the affirmative.

4. Direct : I said to Siddharth, “Will you come here ?” Siddharth said, “No, I am busy at work.”
Indirect : I asked Siddharth if he would go there, but Siddharth replied in the negative and said that he was busy at work.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples पर ध्यान देने से निम्नलिखित बातें मालूम होती हैं-

यदि किसी Question का Answer Yes’ या ‘No’ में दिया हुआ रहे, तो इसे Indirect Speech में दो तरीके से change करते हैं। यदि Answer ‘yes’ में दिया हुआ रहे तो इसे reply/replied in the affirmative में change कर दिया जाता है  यदि Answer ‘No’ में दिया हुआ रहे, तो इसे reply/replied in the negative में change कर दिया जाता है।

लेकिन इस प्रकार के Sentences को Happy Expression नहीं माना जाता है। अच्छा तरीका यह है कि ‘Yes’/No’ को Phrase या Short Answer में change कर दिया जाय Short Answer का Tense भी वही रहता है जो Question का होता है। नीचे दिए गए Examples को ध्यान से समझें-

5. Direct : I said to him, “Are you fond of watching pictures ?” He said, “Yes”.
Indirect : I asked him if he was fond of watching pictures, and he said he was. (Short Answer.)

6. Direct : She said to me, “Do you like driving ?” I said, “No”.
Indirect : She asked me if I liked driving but I said I did not. (Short Answer.)

7. Direct : He said to me, “Will you support me?” “Yes”.
Indirect : He asked me if I would support him, and I said I would.(Short Answer.)

8. Direct : He said to me, “Have you read Kalidas ?” “No.”
Indirect : He asked me if I had read Kalidas, but I said I had not.(Short Answer.)

ध्यान दें : यदि Answer Yes’ हो तो Connective And का प्रयोग और यदि Answer ‘No’ हो तो Connective Butका प्रयोग किया जाता है।

Miscellaneous Types

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें-

1. Direct : He said, “I have bought a new car ? Have you seen it?”
Indirect : He said that he had bought a new car and asked if I had seen it.

2. Direct : I said to him, “Your car is very beautiful. Where did you buy it from ?”
Indirect : I told him that his car was very beautiful and asked where he had bought it from,

3. Direct : I said to Mukul, “She is very late. Do you think she has forgotten to come ?”
Indirect : I told Mukul that she was very late and asked if he thought she had forgotten to come.

4. Direct : She said to me, “I am in a fix. Please help me.”
Indirect : She told me that she was in a fix and requested me to help her.

5. Direct : Sunil said to me, “How attractive this picture is ! Let us stay here for a few minutes.”
Indirect : Sunil exclaimed how attractive that picture was and proposed that we should stay there for a few minutes.

6. Direct : They said, “Hurrah ! We have won the match. Let us celebrate it.”
Indirect : They exclaimed with joy that they had won the match and proposed that they should celebrate it.

7. Direct : I said to him, “What place is it? I have come in this area for the first time.

“Indirect : I asked him what place it was, as I had gone in that area for the first time.

8. Direct : He said to me,“ I have spent the amount which you gave me. Have you something else I can spend ?”
Indirect : He told me that he had spent the amount which I had given him and asked if I had something else he could spend.

9. Direct : The teacher said to the Principal, “Thank You.”
Indirect : The teacher thanked the Principal.

10. Direct : He said, “Thanks. Thanks, good lady.”
Indirect : He addressed her as a good lady and thanked her repeatedly.

11. Direct : He said to me, “It is beautiful. Buy it at once. How cheap it is !”
Indirect : He told me that it was beautiful and advised me to buy it at once and exclaimed that it was very cheap.

12. Direct : The teacher said, “Look here, boys, An empty vessel sounds much.”
Indirect : The teacher invited the attention of the boys to the fact that an empty vessel sounds much.

13. Direct : “Curse it !” said the teacher, “Who could have foreseen your failure ?”
Indirect : The teacher exclaimed on an oath that noone could have foreseen his failure.

ऊपर दिए गए Examples को समझने से निम्नलिखित बातें मालूम होती हैं-

(a) कभी-कभी Inverted Commas के अन्दर कई प्रकार के दो या दो से अधिक Sentences रहते हैं।

(b) Sentence के शुरू में, बीच में या अन्त में बहुधा कोई Interjection या Vocative Case भी रहता है।

(c) ऐसे Mixed Sentences (मिश्रित वाक्यों) से भरे हुए Reported Speech किस खास नियम के अनुसार Direct से Indirect Speech में नहीं Change किए जाते हैं।

Different types & Sentences to introduce करने के लिए Differeent types of Reporting Verbs आवश्यकतानुसार प्रयोग में लाए जाते हैं।

More About Miscellaneous Types

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें।

1. Direct : “If you kill me,” She cried “I will say no other thing. If you throw me into the fire I will say no more. Till death I will hold that what I have said is truth. I have said nothing against God and faith.

Indirect : She said that if they killed her she would say no other thing. If they throw her into the fire she would say no more. Till death she would hold that what she had said was truth. She had said nothing against God and faith.

2. Direct : The old man called his sons and said, “My end is drawing near. I have earned a lot for you. I am leaving you a
big treasure. Dig it out and distribute it among you”.Where is it father ?” asked they. “It lies buried in the field” replied the old man. “Will you listen to one more secret?” asked he. “Yes, father they replied. “Never quarrel among yourselves” said he.

Indirect : The old man called his sons and said (not told’) that his end was drawing near He had eamed a lot for them. He was
leaving them a big treasure. He told them to dig it out and distribute it among them. The sons inquired where it was, The old man replied that it lay buried in the field. The old man inquired of them (or asked them)whether they would listen to one more secret. They replied that they would. The old man advised them never to quarrel among themselves.

3. Direct : Antony said, “Friends Romans, Countrymen, lend me your ears. I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. The evil that men do lives after them.”

Indirect : Addressing the people as friends, Romans and Country-men, Antony requested them to lend him their ears. He
said that he came to bury Caesar, not to praise him. He further said that the evil that men do lives after them.

Reporting a Dialogue in the Indirect Form of Speech :

निम्नलिखित Examples को समझें –

1. Direct : Sita : Ram, have you brought my book?
Ram: Sorry, I haven’t.

Sita : Plese go and bring it now.

Indirect : Sita asked Ram if he had brought her book.
Ram apologised for not having brought it.
Sita requested him to go and bring it then.

2. Direct : Librarian: Rajesh, why have you torn these pages from the book?
Rajesh : I am sorry, Madam.

Librarian: Please pay the cost of the book.

Indirect : The librarian asked Rajesh why he had torn those pages of the book.
Rajesh said that he was sorry.
The librarian requested him to pay the cost of the bon

3. Direct : Ankit: Where are you coming from?
Shivam: I am coming from the meeting,

Ankit : What was it about?
Shivam : It was about the formation of the Students ‘Union in our school.’

Indirect : Ankit asked Shivam where he was coming from.
Shivam replied that he was coming from the meeting.

Ankit asked him what it was about.
Shivam replied that it was about the formation of the Students’ Union in their school.

4. Direct : Mohan : That girl is my sister.

John : What is her name?
Mohan : Her name is Kamla.

John : May I take your photograph Kamla ?

Indirect : Mohan told John that the girl was his sister.

John asked Mohan what her name was.
Mohan replied that her name was Kamla.
John asked Kamla if he might take her photograph.

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