Difference between Time and Tense :

 Difference between Time and Tense :

Time और Tense दो भिन्न Conceptos (संकल्पनाएँ) हैं। Time का सम्बन्ध Verb के Meaning (अर्थ) से रहता है, जबकि Tense  का सम्बन्ध Verb के Form (रूप) से । Time का Concept पूरे विश्व में एक समान है, जबकि Tense का Concept भिन्न भिन्न भाषाओं में भिन्न भिन्न है। Time का Concept भाषा या  व्याकरण से स्वतंत्र है, जबकि Tense पूरी तरह एक Grammatical Concept है ।

Time , हमारा अभिप्राय बीते हुए समय, वर्तमान समय तथा आनेवाले समय से है । पूरे विश्व में इसे Past (भूत), Present (वर्तमान) तथा Future (भविष्य) से निरूपित किया जाता है ।समय एक Non-grammatical concept है, जिसे मानव उस समय भी महसूस करते थे, जब उनके बीच किसी भी भाषा का विकास नहीं हुआ था ।

Time और Tense के बीच के अन्तर को समझने के लिए इस Sentence पर विचार करें—”He is buying a computer next month.” इसका अर्थ हआ कि “वह अगले माह कम्प्यूटर खरीद रहा है ।” इस वाक्य की कि या Present Tense में है, परन्तु इससे Future Time का बोध हो रहा है । यदि Time और Tense दोनों एक ही Concept होते, तो Present Tense से केवल Present Time का ही बोध होता, Future Time का नहीं । इस प्रकार स्पष्ट होता है कि Time और Tense दो भिन्न Concepts हैं।

Tense को इस प्रकार परिभाषित किया जा सकता है-     

Tense तीन प्रकार के होते हैं।

1. Present Tense                                                                                                                                                                          2. Past Tense
3. Future Tense

फिर एक ही काल में क्रिया की भिन्न-भिन्न अवस्थाओं को व्यक्त करने के लिए प्रत्येक Tense के चार भेद हैं

1. Simple/Indefinite
2. Continuous/Progressive / Imperfect
3. Perfect
4. Perfect Continuous.

1. Simple Present Tense

Structure: S+V1/V5+O/C
जहा , S  =  Subject
V1 = Base/First form of Verb;  जैसे -go, eat, drink, write
V5 = V1 +S/es;  जैसे -goes, eats, drinks, writes
O  = Object
C  = Complement

A. Simple Present Tense में  Base form/First form of the verb का प्रयोग Person Singular Number के Subjects को छोड़कर बाकी सब Subjects के साथ होता है,

जैसे-

  • I go to school daily.
  • We do our work regularly.
  • You take exercise in the morning.
  • They drink milk everyday.

B. यदि Subject Third Person Singular में हो, तो first form of the verb के साथ s/es जोड़ दिया जाता है,

जैसे-

  • Ram works hard.
  • She speaks the truth.
  • Sonali goes to school daily.
  • He learns his lesson.

ध्यान दें:

  • यदि Verb का last letter s, sh, ss, ch, x, O, z हो, तो es जोड़ते हैं। यदि ऐसा नही  हो, तो केवल ‘s‘ जोड़ा जाता है ।
  • यदि Verb का last letter “y’ हो और उसके पहले कोई consonant हो, तो ‘y’ को ‘i’ में बदलकर  es जोड़ते है ;

 जैसे – ‘

  • carry-carries’, ‘fry—fries’
  • यदि Verb का last letter y’ हो और उसके पहले कोई vowel हो, तो ‘s’ जोड़ा जाता है;
  • जैसे – ‘pray-prays’, ‘play-plays’

C.  Do/Does  का प्रयोग  Interrogative, Negative/Emphatic Sentences में किया जाता है।

(a) Interrogative Sentences : Do/Does को Subject  के पहले रखते है तथा first form of the verb (V1) को Subject के बाद

  •  Structure : Do/Does + S + V1 + … ?
  • Do you read newspaper daily?
  • Does she attend the classes regularly?

When does he take exercise ?

(b) Negative Sentences : यदि Subject के रूप में I, We, You, They या कोई Plural Noun हो, तो do not का प्रयोग होता है।     यदि Subject He, She, It या कोई अन्य Third Person Singular Noun हो, तो does not का प्रयोग होता है। इम्पेरटिवे Sentences      do not से शुरू होते हैं।

Structure:

  • S+do/does + not + V1 …
  • I do not smoke.
  • They do not tell a lie.

 Do not make a noise.
He does not take alcohol.
Exception: He never takes alcohol.

{Here the sentence means – He dose not ever take alcohol.}

(c) Emphatic Sentences : Simple Present Tense में  Main Verb के पहले  do/ does का प्रयोग कर Emphatic Sentence बनाते हैं।

Non-emphatic :-

  • I know English.
  • She loves him very much.                                                                                                                                                         
  • He smokes but does not confess.

Emphatic :-         

  • I do know English
  • She does love him very much.
  • He does smoke but does not confess.

धयान दे :-

do /does/did के साथ केवल  first form of the verb (V1) का प्रयोग होता है उपर दाहिने ओर दिए गए वाक्यों में do/does का प्रयोग वाक्य को Emphatic (जोरदार) बनाने के लिए किया गया है।

ऐसे पाक्यों में do/dous का  अनुवाद होता है  .जरूर’/’अवश्य’ जैसे— I do know English का अर्थ हुआ मैं अंग्रेजी अवश्य/ जरूर जानता हूँ या मैं अंग्रेजी जानता तो हूँ।

ध्यान दें :-

Simple Present Tense का प्रयोग Present Continuous Tense के बदले में वैसे Verbs के साथ किया जाता है जिनका प्रयोग  सामान्यत

Continuous form में नहीं होता है।

जैसे-

  • (a) Verbs of Perception : hear, notice, see, smell, recognise.
  • (b) Verbs of Possession : belong, contain, own, possess, consist of.
  • (c) Verbs of Appearing: appear, look, seem.
  • (d) Verbs of Emotion : desire, feel, hate, hope, love, refuse, want, wish, like, prefer.
  • (e) Verbs of Thinking : think, suppose, understand, agree, believe, consider, forget, know, mean, imagine, mind, remember.

नीचे दिए गए Table को समझकर अपना Concept Clear करें-

Wrong :-

  • I am having a car.
  • I am thinking he is honest.
  •  She is looking sad.
  • A child is liking sweets.
  • These mangoes are tasting sweet

 Right :-

  • I have a car.
  • I think he is honest.
  • She looks sad.
  • A child likes sweets.
  •  These mangoes taste sweet.

Exception:-

ऊपर दिए गए Verte का प्रयोग यदि Present Continuous Tense में किया जाता है तो इनके अर्थ में परिवर्तन हो जाता है;

  जैसे :-

  • She is having a bath.(busy in taking)
  • He is feeling better now.(has become)
  • I am thinking of joining a private company.(has the idea of

2. Present Continuous Tense

 Structure: S+Am/Are / Is + V4 + O/C

जैसे:- V4 = V-ing जैसे -going, eating, writing.

A.  Am का प्रयोग I के साथ तथा Are का प्रयोग We, They, You तथा अन्य Plural Nouns के साथ होता है। Is का प्रयोग He,She, It तथा अन्य    Third PersonSingular Nouns के साथ होता है;

 जैसे-

  • I am writing a letter.
  • He is reading a novel.
  • They are flying kites.
  • Sheela is walking.

B. Interrogative Sentences :

Helping Verb को  Subject  के पहले रखकर Interrogative Sentence बनाया जाता है-

Structure:

Am/Are/Is +S+ V4 +O/C?

  • Are you going to Delhi?
  • Am I telling a lie ?
  • Is he selling his house?
  • Are they taking tea ?

C. Negative Sentences :

Main Verb ओर Helping Verb के बिच  Not जोड़कर Negative Sentence बनाया जाता है।
Structure: S+ am/is/are + not + V4 +0/C I am not vexing you.

  • They are not feeding the cows.
  • She is not doing her duty well.
  • Students are not making a noise.

धयान दे :-

Verbs of Perception/Possession/Appearing/Emotion/Thinking का प्रयोग सामान्यत: Present Continuous Tense में  नहीं होता है। नीचे दिए गए Table को समझकर अपना Concept clear करे

Wrong :-

  • I am believing it.
  • He is having a computer.
  • She is owning a building.
  •  I am supposing that it is correct.
  •  This book is belonging to me.
  • I am smelling something burning.
  •  She is not understanding it.
  •  These oranges are tasting sweet.

Right :-   I believe it.

  • He has a computer.
  • She owns a building.
  • I suppoe that it is correct.
  • This book belongs to me.
  • I smell something burning.
  • She does not understand it.
  • These oranges taste sweet.

जब ऐसे Verbs का प्रयोग Continuous Tense में किया जाता है तब “इनके अर्थ बदल जाते हैं;

जैसे:-

  • She is having lunch. (having means taking.)
  • I am looking for my pen. (Looking for means searching.)
  • He is thinking of going to Hisar. (Thinking of means planning.)

 3. Present Perfect Tense

Structure:-

S + Have/Has + V3 +O/C                                                                                                                                                                  जहाँ, V3 = Third/Past Participle form of the verb;

जैसे –

gone, written, eaten.

A. Present Perfect Tense में  have/has के साथ  Past Participle (V3) form ऑफ़ the verb का प्रयोग होता है। Have का प्रयोग I, we, you, they तथा अन्य प्लुरल Nouns के साथ तथा Has का प्रयोग He, She, It तथा अन्य Third Person सिंगुलर Nouns के साथ किया जाता है;             

जैसे-

  • I have taught her.
  • She has helped me.
  • They have completed their work.

B. Interrogative Sentences : Have/Has को Subject के पहले रखा जाता है |

Structure:

  • Have/Has +S+V3+O/C?
  • Has he gone to Delhi ?
  • Have you ever seen the Red Fort?
  • Have you done your home-work?

C. Negative Sentences : Main Verb तथा  Helping Verb के बीच  ‘Not का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

Structure:-

  • S + Have/Has + Not + V3 + O/C
  • I have not taken my lunch yet.
  • I have not completed the work.
  • He has not consulted any doctor.

ध्यान दें :-

ऐसा कार्य-कलाप जो भूतकाल में आरम्भ में हुआ और अभी भी जारी है, उसे व्यक्त करने के लिए Present Perfect Continuous Tense का भी प्रयोग होता है । लेकिन कुछ Verbs ऐसे हैं, जिनका प्रयोग Continuous form में नहीं होता है, वैसे Verbs के लिए Present Perfect Tense का ही प्रयोग करना पड़ता है।

वैसे Verbs जिनका प्रयोग Present Perfect Tense तथा Present Perfect Continuous Tense दोनों में होता है, तब कोई समस्या नहीं है। ऐसा कार्य-कलाप जो भूतकाल में आरम्भ होकर वर्तमान तक जारी हो, को Present Perfect या Present Perfect Continuous दोनों में व्यक्त किया जा सकता है इससे Sentence के अर्थ में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता है ।

जैसे-

  • I have lived in Patna since 1979. or,
  • I have been living in Patna since 1979.
  • She has written five letters since morning. or,
  • She has been writing five letters since morning.

लेकिन ‘T have been knowing him for five years’ लिखना गलत है, क्योंकि ‘know’ Verb of Thinking है, जिसका प्रयोग continuous form में नहीं होता है। अतः हमें लिखना चाहिए-
I have known him for five years.

Past Time denoting Adverbs of Time का प्रयोग Present Perfect Tense में  नहीं किया जाता है । यदि Past Time डेनोटिंग Adverbs of Time का प्रयोग करना आवश्यक हो, तो Past Indefinite Tense में Sentence. का प्रयोग करना सही है। नीचे दिए गए Table को समझकर अपना concept clear करें ।

       Wrong :-

  • She has come yesterday.
  • I have seen him five years ago.
  • Father has returned from Delhi last week.
  • I have passed my Matriculation in 1979.

Right  

  • She came yesterday.
  • I saw him five years ago.
  • Father returned from Delhi last week
  • I passed my Matriculation in 1979.

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

Structure: S + Have/Has been + V4 +O/C

A. Present Perfect Continuous Tense form करने के लिए  have/has been का  प्रयोग Present Participle form of the verb के पहले किया जाता है;

जैसे—

  • he has been playing for two hours.
  • I have been writing since 8 o’clock.

B. Interrogative Sentences.

  • Structure: Have/Has + S + been + V4 +O/C?
  • Has it been raining since morning?
  • Have you been studying in this school for five years ?

C. Negative Sentences

  • Structure: S + Have/Has not been + V4 +O/C
  • It has not been raining since morning.
  • You have not been studing in this school for five years।

5. Simple Past Tense

Structure : S+ V2 +O/C

A. Simple Past Tense में  second form of the verb का प्रयोग होता है;

जैसे –

  • She wrote a letter.
  • He came yesterday.
  • I completed my work.

B. Interrogative Sentences :
Structure : Did +S+ V1 +O/C?
Did she give you the message ?
Did you attend the class yesterday ?
At what time did you go to sleep last night?

C. Negative Sentences :
Structure: S+ Did + Not + V1 +O/C
I did not apply for leave.
He did not attend the meeting yesterday.
Exception: I never told a lie.
इस  Sentence का अर्थ – I did not ever tell a lie.

D. Emphatic Sentences : Simple Past Tense में  did को  Main verb के  पहले  रखकर Emphatic Sentence बनाते हैं।

नीचे दिए गए Table को समझकर अपना concept clear करें –

Non-emphatic

  • She bought the book.
  • I wrote to him.
  • He helped you.

Emphatic

  • She did buy the book.
  • I did write to him.
  • He did help you.

6. Past Continuous Tense

Structure : S+ Was/Were + V4 +O/C

A. Past Continuous Tense form करने के लिए  was/ were के साथ  Present Participle (V4) का प्रयोग किया जाता है;

जैसे-

I was going to Deharadoon yesterday.
The car was running at full speed.
Dogs were barking all night.

B. Interrogative Sentences
Structure : Was/Were +S+V4 +O/C?
Was I telling a lie?
Was she watching a movie yesterday?
Were the cows grazing in the field ?

C. Negative Sentences
Structure: S+ Was/Were + Not + V4 +O/C
I was not telling a lie.
The cows were not grazing in the field.
She was not watching a movie yesterday.

 7. Past Perfect Tense

Structure: S + Had + V3 +O/C

A. Past perfect Tense में  Helping Verb ‘Had’ के बाद  Past Participle/Third form of the verb का प्रयोग होता है,

जैसे-

  • I had worked.                                                                                                                                                                     
  • He had gone.
  • It had rained.

B. Interrogative Sentences

  • Structure : Had +S+V3+O/C?
  • Had I worked ?
  • Had he gone?
  • Had it rained?

C. Negative Sentences

Structure: S + Had + Not + V3 +O/C
I had not worked.
He had not gone.
It had not rained.                                                     

8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Structure: S + Had been + V4 +O/C
A. Past Perfect Continuous Tense form करने के लिए  had been , के साथ  Present Participle (V4) का प्रयोग किया जाता है;

जैसे-

I had been working.
He had been listening to the radio,
It had been raining since last night.

B. Interrogative Sentences :

Structure : Had +S+ been + V4 +O/C?
Had I been working?
Had he been listening to the radio ?
Had it been raining since last night?

C. Negative Sentences :

Structure: S+Had + not + been + V4 +O/C                                                                                                                                    I had not been working.
He had not been listening to the radio.
It had not been raining since last night.

9. Simple Future Tense

Structure : S+Shall/Will + V1 +O/C
1. Simple Future Tense में  Subject ओर  first form of the Verb के  बीच   shall/ will का प्रयोग किया जाता है। सामान्यतः First Person के Pronouns (I, We) के  साथ shall का तथा Second Person के Pronouns (you) और Third Person के Pronouns (He, she, It, They) के साथ will का प्रयोग किया जाता है;

 जैसे-
I shall go to Delhi.
He will help you.
We shall play football.
They will realise the truth.

2. Interrogative Sentences :

Structure : Shall/Will + S + V1 +O/C?
Shall I go to Rajkot ?
Will he help you?
Shall we play football ?
Will they realise the truth?

3. Negative Sentences :

Structure : S+Shall/Will + Not + V1 +O/C
He will not help you.
I shall not go to Rajkot.
We shall not play football.
They will not realise the truth.

10. Future Continuous Tense

Structure : S + Shall/Will be + V4 +O/C
It will be raining
I shall be staying there.
We shall be playing football.

Interrogative: Shall/Will + S + be +V4 +O/C?
Will it be raining?
Shall I be staying there?
Shall we be playing football ?

Nagative : S+ Shall/Will + Not + be + V4 +O/C
It will not be raining.
I shall not be staying there.
We shall not be playing football.

 11. Future Perfect Tense

Structure : S+ shall/will + have + V3 +O/C
I shall have completed the work by that time.
She will have covered her journey by next Sunday.
He will have finished the course before the term ends.

Interrogative Sentences : Shall/will + S + have + V3 +O/C?
Shall we have revised our lessons before evening?
Will he have completed the course before Durgapuja ?
Will they have landed by the time we reach the airport?

Negative Sentences : S+ shall/will + not + have + V3 +O/C
I shall not have finished the work before dawn (mfet).
They will not have completed the course before Durgapuja.
Indian villages will not have got electrified till the year 2025.

 12. Future Pefect Continuous

Structure: S + Shall/Will + Have been + V4 +O/C
I shall have been doing it for five hours.
The boys will have been playing cricket since morning.
I shall have been writing four books by the end of this year.

Interrogative Sentences : Shall/Will + S + Have been + V +O/C?
Shall I have been writing for ten hours ?
Will she have been talking to you for a long time ?
Will the boys have been flying kites since morning ?

Negative Sentences : S+ Shall/Will +Not+ Have been + V4 +O/C
Leaders will not have been deceiving us for ever.
I shall not have been talking to you for a long time.
The boys will not have been flying kites since morning.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense का प्रयोग ऐसे कार्य-कलाप की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए किया जाता है जो भविष्य में काफी समय  तक/किसी खास समय तक जारी रहेगा।

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