Degrees of Comparison
Adjectives के तीन Degrees of comparison होते हैं। ये इस प्रकार है –
1. Positive Degree : इसमें Adjective अपने Simple quality को express करता है। इसका प्रयोग दो व्यक्तियों/वस्तुओं या व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के दो सेट (समूह) के बीच comparison (तुलना) करने के लिए किया जाता है। इस degree में adjectives को as ………. as /so……..as के रखा जाता है;
This book is as useful as that.
Alia is no so clever as Ameena.
Mohan is as intelligent as Sohan.
These books are as useful as those.
Khushi and Hanshi are as naughty as Neha and Nupur.
2. Comparative Degree : इसमें Adjective अपने Higher quality को express करता है। इसका प्रयोग दो व्यक्तियों / वस्तुओं या व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं के दो सेट के बीत comparison करने के लिए किया जाता है। इससे पता चलता है कि कोई व्यक्ति या वस्तु किसी दूसरे व्यक्ति या वस्तु से certain quality में अच्छा (better) है या (worse) खराब;
Mira is wiser than her sister.
Daisy is more beautiful than her mother.
Sudama is less intelligent than his brother.
Ajay and Vinay are better chess players than Mukual and Sunil.
3. Superlative Degree : इसमें Adjective अपने Highest quality को express करता है। इसका प्रयोग दो से अधिक के बीच Comparison करने के लिए किया जाता है। इससे पता चलता है कि कोई व्यक्ति या वस्तु certain quality में सबसे अच्छा (best) है या सबसे खराब (worst);
Moti is the dullest of all his brothers.
Shikhar Dhawan is the best player in our team.
Anshu is the most intelligent of all students in the class.
Some Special Points to Remember
1. Adjectives की तरह ही Adverbs के भी Degrees of Comparison होते हैं,
2. पाँच ऐसे Words हैं जो Positive Degree में Adverb हैं, लेकिन Comparative तथा Superlative Degree में Adjective-
|out||outer, utter||utter most, utmost|
3. अनेक Adverbs तथा कुछ Adjectives ऐसे हैं जिनका प्रयोग Comparative या Superlative Degree में नहीं होता है;
here, there, now, then, right, wrong, where, once, circular, round, square etc.
4. Latin से लिए गए कुछ Comparatives ऐसे हैं जिनके Positive या Superlative Degree नहीं होते। इनकी संख्या 12 है और ऐसे words का अंत or से होता है। ये इस प्रकार हैं-
Interior, Exterior, Ulterior, Major, Minor, Inferior, Superior, Prior, Anterior, Posterior, Senior & Junior
इनमें से Interior, Exterior, Ulterior, Major तथा Minor का प्रयोग अब Comparative Meaning के लिए नहीं किया जाता है। इनका प्रयोग अब Positive Adjective के रूप में किया जाता है; जैसे-
He is superior to me in rank.
Mr. Roy is senior/junior to me.
Passanger report to the check-in desk prior to departure.
Mohan is inferior to Sohan in knowledge.
5. Former, Latter, Elder, Upper, Inner, Outer, Utter etc. कुछ ऐसे English Comparatives हैं जिनका प्रयोग अब Comparative Meaning के लिए न होकर Positive Adjective की तरह होता है;
Suresh is my elder brother.
This is a matter of utter confusion.
The inner room is suitable to live in.
The outer wall of the B.H.U. is very high.
Dr Manmohan Singh is our former Prime Minister.
Interchange of Positive and Comparative :
इस Sentence पर गौर करें-
He is as intelligent as his brother.
इसका अर्थ है कि ‘In intelligence he is equal to his brother. दूसरे शब्दों में कहा जा सकता है कि ‘His brother does not possess more intelligence’ अतः इस Sentence को Comparative Degree में इस प्रकार Change किया जाएगा।
His brother is not more intelligent than he.
अब इस Sentence पर ध्यान दें।
Rahul is so clever as Ravi
इसका अर्थ है कि ‘Ravi does not possess greater cleverness than Rahul’ अतः इस Sentence को Comparative Degree में इस प्रकार change किया जाएगा –
Ravi is not cleverer than Rahul.
Positive Sentence को Comparative Sentence में Change करने के लिए निम्नलिखित Rules को follow करें-
(a) as …….as / so…….as को हटा दें।
(b) Adjectives को Comparative Degree का रूप दें।
(c) यदि Positive Sentence Affirmative हो तो उसे Negative और यदि Negative हो तो उसे Affirmative बना दें।
(d) Sentence के दूसरे भाग को नए Sentence में पहले रखें तथा पहले भाग को अंत में।
(e) Comparative के बाद than का प्रयोग करें।
(f) यदि Positive Sentence में No other’ हो तो ‘Any other में change कर दें।
(g) यदि Positive Sentence में ‘very few’ हो तो ‘Most other’ में change कर दें।
|Rajani is as intelligent as Ritika.||Ritika is not more intelligent than Rajani|
|He is not so good as Vipul.||Vipul is better than he.|
|Soni is as tall as you.||You are not taller than Soni.|
|Nitu is as beautiful as Neha.||Nitu is not more beautiful than Neha.|
|No other boy in the class is as naughty as Pravin||Pravin is more naughty than any other boy in the class.|
|Very few things in the world is so important as honesty.||Honesty is more important than most other things in the world.|
From Comparative Degree to Positive Degree.
इस Sentence पर गौर करें-
She is taller than her sister.
इसका अर्थ है कि ‘Her sister does not have the same height as she. अतः इस Comparative Sentence को Positive Sentence में इस तरह से Change किया जाता है –
Her sister is not as tall as she.
अब इस Sentence पर ध्यान दें-
His shirt is not costlier than mine.
इसका अर्थ है कि ‘My shirt has the same cost as his’. अतः इसे Positive Degree में इस प्रकार Change किया जाता है।
My shirt is as costly as his.
Comparative Degree को Positive Degree में Change करने के लिए निम्नलिखित Rules को follow करें
(a) Comparative Degree के Adjective को Positive में बदलें-
(b) Adjective at (as…… as / So … … as) के बीच में रखें –
(c) Than को हटा दें-
(d) यदि Positive Sentence Affirmative हो, तो उसे Negative और Negative
हो तो उसे Affirmative बना दें।
(e) Sentence के दूसरे भाग को नए Sentence में पहले रखें और पहले भाग को अंत में ।
(f) Comparative Degree के ‘Any other’ को ‘No other’ में बदले दें।
(g) Comparative Degree के Most other को ‘Very few’ में बदले दें।
|He is wiser than Karim.||Karim is not as wise as he.|
|He is not wiser than Karim.||Karim is as wise as he.|
|Geeta is more intelligent than I.||I am not as intelligent as Geeta.|
|A dog runs faster than a cat.||A cat does not run as fast as a dog.|
|I know him as well as you do.||You do not know him better than I do.|
1. She is as good as Lata. >> Positive
Lata is not better than she. >> Comparative
2. Ram is not as wise as Shyam. >> Positive
Shyam is wiser than Ram. >> Comparative
3. The pen is mightier (शक्तिशाली) than the sword. >> Comparative
The sword is not as mighty as the pen. >> Positive
4. Your sister is not more beautiful than my sister. >> Comparative
My sister is as beautiful as your sister. >> Positive
5. The train runs faster than the car. >> Comparative
The car does not run so fast as the train. >> Positive
6. She has more money than wisdom. >> Comparative
She does not have as much wisdom as money. >> Passessive Positive
7. I know him as well as you do. >> Positive
You do not know him better than I do. >> Comparative
8. He does not know you better than I do. >> Comparative
I know you as well as he does. >> Positive
Interchange of Positive, Comparative and Superlative :
निम्नलिखित Sentences मे degree के ऊपर ध्यान दें –
1. Premchand is the best novelist in Hindi. >> Superlative
प्रेमचंद हिन्दी के सबसे अच्छे उपन्यासकार है।
2. Premchand is better than any other novelist in Hindi.
or Premchand is better than all other novelists in Hindi.
प्रेमचंद हिन्दी के किसी भी दूसरे उपन्यासकार से अच्छे हैं।
3. No other novelist in Hindi is as good as Premchand.
or No other novelist in Hindi is so good as Premchand.
हिन्दी का कोई दूसरा उपन्यासकार उतना अच्छा नहीं है जितना प्रेमचंद ।
पहले Sentence में Superlative Degree, दूसरे में Comparative Degree तथा तीसरे Sentence में Positive Degree का प्रयोग हुआ है। उपर्युक्त सभी Sentences के अर्थ एक ही हैं। Sentences में प्रयुक्त Adjectives के Degree में अंतर है।
‘Best की जगह पर better than any other’ या ‘better than all other’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है, यदि Comparative Degree के Adjective का प्रयोग करना हो । ‘Any other’ के बाद Singular Noun तथा ‘All other’ के बाद Plural Noun का प्रयोग करना चाहिए। Better than any / Better than all का प्रयोग कभी नहीं करना चाहिए; इसके बाद ‘Other’ शब्द का प्रयोग निश्चित रूप से करना चाहिए।
यदि Positive Degree के Adjective का प्रयोग करने की आवश्यकता हो, तो No other + Noun in Singular Number + so good as (या as good as) का प्रयोग करना चाहिए। नीचे दिए गए Examples से आपका concept और clear होगा।
1. America is the richest country in the world. >> Superlative
America is richer than any other country in the world.
or, America is richer than all other countries in the world. >> Comprative
No other country in the world is so/as rich as America. >> Positive
2. Sardar Patel was the greatest leader in India. >> Superlative
Sardar Patal was greater than any other leader in India.
or, Sardar Patel was greater than all other leaders in India. >> Comprative
No other leader in India was so/as great as Sardar Patel. >> Positive
3. Gold is the costliest of all metals. >> Superlative
Gold is costlier than any other metal,
or Gold is costlier than all other metals. >> Comprative
No other metal is as /so costly as gold. >> Positive
कुछ sentences में Degree को दूसरे प्रकार से भी Change किया जाता है। नीचे दिए गए Examples का अध्ययन कर अपना concept clear करें-
1. Anjali is one of the best students of my school. >> Superlative
Anjali is better than most other students of my schoool. >> Comparative
or, Very few students of my school are as / so good as Anjali. >> Positive
2. Ashoka was one of the greatest emperors. >> Superlative
Ashoka was greater than most other emperors. >> Comparative
Very few emperors were as great as Ashoka. >> Positive
3. Miton was one of the greatest poets of England. >> Superlative
Milton was greater than most other poets of England. >> Comparative
Very few poets of England were so / as great as Milton. >> Positive
पहले दिए गए Exampels और ठीक ऊपर दिए गए Examples में कुछ अंतर है। उपर्युक्त Exampels में दिया गया है ‘one of the best, one of the greatest etc.’ इनके पहले बताए गए Examples में दिया गया है “The best, the greatest etc.’ ।
दोनों प्रकार के Sentences के अर्थ में अंतर है। ‘The greast’ का अर्थ है ‘सबसे बड़ा’ और ‘one of the greatest’ का अर्थ है ‘सबसे महान् व्यक्तियों में एक’ । अतः The greatest का अर्थ ही है greater than all other और one of the greatest का अर्थ है ‘greatest than most other’ अतः Transformed Sentences में भी अंतर होगा। इसे ध्यान में रखें-
Comparative Degree में One of the best के बदले Better than most other
Comparative Degree में The best के बदले Better than all /any other
Positive Degree में One of the best के बदले Very few…so / as good as
Positive Degree में The best के बदले No other …so / as good as
1. Amitabh Bachachan is the best actor. >> Superlative
Amitabh Bachachan is better than any other actor.
or, Amitabh Bachachan is better than all other actors. >> Comparative
No other actor is as / so good as Amitabh Bachachan. >> Positive
2. The Hindustan Times is the most popular news paper in India. >> Superlative
The Hindustan Times is more popular than any other news paper / than all other news papers in India. >> Comparative
No other news paper in India is so popular as the Hindustan Times. >> Positive
3. Akbar was one of the gratest rulers of India. >> Superlative
Akbar was greater than most other rulers of India >> Comparative
Very few rulers of India were as great as Akbar. >> Positive
4. No other man was as truthful as Gandhiji. >> Positive
Gandhiji was more truthful than any other man. >> Comparative
Gandhji was the most truthful man. >> Superlative
5. Anamika is better than any other student in the class. >> Comparative
No other student in the class is as good as Anamika, >> Positive
Anamika is the best student in the class. >> Superlative
6. Rasgulla is more tasteful than all other sweets. >> Comparative
No other sweet is so/as tasteful as rasgulla. >> Positive
Rasgulla is the most tasteful of all sweets. >> Superlative
7. Patna is busier than any other town in Bihar. >> Comparative
No other town in Bihar is so/as busy as Patna. >> Positive
Patna is the busiest town in Bihar. >> Superlative
8. Tulsidas is more famous than most other poets in India. >> Comparative
Very few poets in India are as famous as Tulsidas. >> Positive
Tulsidas is one of the most famous poets in India. >> Superlative
9. The dog is more faithful than most other animals. >> Comparative
The dog is one of the most faithful animals. >> Superlative
Very few animals are as faithful as the dog. >> Positive
10. Very few dramatists of the world are as famous as Shakespeare. >> Positive
Shakespeare is more famous than most other dramatists of the world. >> Comparative
Shakespeare is one of the most famous dramatist of the world. >> Superlative
11. Very few leaders were as honest as Karpoori Thakur. >> Positive
Karpoori Thakur was one of the most honest leaders. >> Superlative
Karpoori Thakur was more honest than most other leaders, >> Comparative
12. He is not the most intelligent of all students. >> Superlative
He is not more intelligent than some other students. >> Comparative
or, Some students are not less intelligent than he. >> Comparative
Some students are at least as intelligent as he. >> Positive
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