active and passive voice examples with answers

active and passive voice examples with answers

Table A तथा Table B में दिए गए sentences को ध्यान से पढ़ें और सोचें कि इनमें क्या अन्तर है–

A B
I eat bread. Bread is eaten by me.
She writes a letter. A letter is written by her.
We like tragic films. Tragic films are liked by us.

Table A के Sentences में Transitive Verbs-eat, writes और like से यह पता चलता है कि उनके Subjects कुछ करते हैं। I eat; She writes; We like- इनमें Subject का importance (प्रधानता) है। Verb के Person और Number भी Subject के अनुसार हैं।

लेकिन Table B के Verbs-is eaten, is written और are liked से पता चलता है कि इनके Subjects कुछ करते नहीं हैं, Subjects को ही कुछ होता है। इन Sentence में वास्तव में Objects का Importance है। फलतः Verb के Number और Person भी Objects के अनुसार हैं।

ऊपर दिए गए Sentences पर ध्यान देने से पता चलता है कि एक ही Transitive Verb का दो तरह से प्रयोग हुआ है। एक से Subject का importance स्पष्ट होता है और दूसरे से Object का। Transitive Verb के Form (रूप) में इस प्रकार जो change (परिवर्तन) आता है इसी Change of Form को English में Voice दुवारा express (व्यक्त) किया जाता है।

Voice is that form of a Verb which shows whether what is denoted by the subject does something or has something done to it.

Voice Verb का वह Form है, जिससे यह पता चलता है कि Sentence में Subject कुछ कर रहा है या Subject पर ही कुछ घटित हो रहा है।

active and passive voice examples with answers

Voice दो प्रकार के होते हैं।

1. Active Voice और 2. Passive Voice

(1.) Active Voice:

A Verb is in the Active Voice when its form shows that the person or thing denoted by the subject does something or is the doer of the action.
or, When we need to express the emphasis on the subject or to express the importance of the subject, we use Active Voice.

(2.) Passive Voice :

A Verb is in the Passive Voice when its form shows that something is done to the person or thing denoted by the subject.

or. When we need to express the emphasis on the object or to express the importance of the object, we use Passive Voice.

Examples:

Active Voice Passive Voice
Ram loves Sita. Sita is loved by Ram.
He is writing a letter. A letter is being written by him.
I shall help you. You will be helped by me.
The police arrested the thief. The thief was arrested.

ध्यान दें: 

In Active Sentence, the subject is the person or thing that performs the action.
In Passive Sentence, the subject is affected by the action of the verb.

Rules for Changing a Verb from the Active Voice into the Passive Voice.

(1.) Active Sentence का Object, Passive Sentence में Subject के स्थान पर रखा जाता है। इस Passive Subject के Number, Person और Verb के Tense के अनुसार Auxiliary Verb का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

(2.) Active Sentence के Main Verb को V3 (Past participle) form में प्रयोग किया जाता है। V3 के पहले Verb to be’ का कोई form (am/is/are/was/were/be/being/been में से कोई एक) Tense के अनुसार प्रयोग किया जाता है।

(3.) Active Sentence के Subject को Passive Sentence के Verb का Agent’ बना दिया जाता है। यदि यह Agent sentence के Meaning को स्पष्ट करने के लिए आवश्यक लगता है, तो उसे Sentence के अन्त में ‘By’ या अन्य Suitable Preposition लगाकर रख दिया जाता है; अन्यथा उसे हटा दिया जाता है।

(4.) Pronoun का प्रयोग जब Subject के रूप में होता है, तब यह Nominative Case (कर्ता-कारक) में रहता है और जब इसका प्रयोग Object के रूप में होता है तब यह Objective Case (कर्म कारक) में रहता है।

Nominative Case I, We,You,He,She,It,They,Who
Objective Case Me,Us,You,Him,Her,It,Them,Whom

(5.)जब Subject के स्थान पर one, someone, somebody, nobody, anybody,everybody, they, people या कोई दूसरा Vague या Indefinite subject हो तो Passive Verb के साथ उसका लोप हो जाता है।

कुछ Sentences में I, we, you,they, he, she, a man ऐसे agents को भी आवश्यकतानुसार Passive Verb के साथ लुप्त कर दिया जाता है।

अतः Sentence के अर्थ को समझते हुए यह निर्णय लेना चाहिए कि सम्बन्धित Passive Sentence में Agent का प्रयोग आवश्यक है कि नहीं।

  sentences of active and passive voice

अब हम Tense-wise Passive Voice बनाना सीखें-

1. Passive Voice of Present Indefinite/Simple Present Tense

(a) Affirmative Sentences

Structure :  S + is/are/am + V3 + other words

Active Passive
I write a letter. A letter is written by me.
She lover me. I am loved by her.
They eat apples. Apples are eaten by them.
We help you. You are helped by us.

(b) Negative Sentences

Structure :  S + is/are/am + Not + V3 + other words

Active Passive
I do not write a letter. A letter is not written by me.
She dose not love me. I am not loved by her.
they do not eat apples. Apples are not eaten by them.
We do not help you. You are not helped by us.

(c) Interrogative Sentences

Structure :  Is/ Are/Am + S + V3 + other words?

Active Passive
Do I write a letter ? Is a letter written by me ?
Does she love me ? Am I loved by her ?
Do they eat apples ? Are apples eaten by them ?
How do you know her ? How is she know to you ?

ध्यान दें : Helping Verb do/does/did का प्रयोग Passive Voice में कभी नहीं किया जाता है।

(d) Negative – Interrogative Sentences

Structure :  Is/Are/Am +S+ not + V3 + other words ?

Active Passive
Do I not write a letter ? Is a letter not written by me ?
Does she not love me ? Am I not loved by her ?
Who dose not love you ? By whom are you not loved ?
Why do you not teach him ? Why is he not taught by you ?

2. Passive Voice of Present Continuous Tense

(a) Affirmative Sentences

Structure :  S + is/are/am + being + V3 + other words.

Active Passive
I am writing a letter. A letter is being written by me.
She loving me. I am being loved by her.
They are eating apples. Apples are being eaten by them.
We are helping you. You are being helped by us.

(b) Negative Sentences

Structure :  S+ is/are/am + not + being +V3+ other words.

Active Passive
I am not writing a letter. A letter is not being writtien by me.
She is not loving me. I am not being loved by her.
They are not eating apples. Apples are not being eaten by them.
We are not helping you. You are not being helped by us.

(c) Interrogative Sentences

Structure :  Is/Are/Am + S + being + V3 + other words ?

Active Passive
Am I writing a letter ? Is a letter being written by me ?
Is she loving me ? Am I being loved by her ?
What are you doing ? What is being done by you ?
Who is helping you ? Who are you being helped by ?

(d) Negative – Interrogative Sentences

Structure :  Is/Am/Are + S + not + being + V3 + other words ?

Active Passive
Am I not writing a letter ? Is a letter not being writing by me ?
Is she not loving me ? Am I not being loved by her ?
what are you not doing ? What is not being done by you ?
Whom are they not teaching ? Who are not being taught by them ?

3. Passive Voice of Present Perfect Tense

(a) Affirmative Sentences

Structure :  S + have/has + been + V3 + other words

Active Passive
I have written a letter. A letter has been writing by me.
She has loved me. I have been loved by her.
They have eaten apples. Apples have been eaten by them.
We have helped you. You have been helped by us.

(b) Negative Sentences

Structure :  S+ have/has + not + been +V3 + other words

Active Passive
I have not written a letter. A letter has not been written by me.
She has not loved me. I have not been loved by her.
They have not eaten apples. Apples have not been eaten by them.
We have not helped you. You have not been helped by us.

(c) Interrogative Sentences

Structure :  Have/Has + S + been + V3 + other words ?

Active Passive
Have I written a letter ? Has a letter been written by me ?
Has she loved me ? Have I been loved by her ?
What have you done ? What has been done by you ?
Whom have you obliged ? Who has been obliged by you ?

(d) Negative-Interrogative Sentences

Structure :  Have/Has +S+ not + been + V3 + other words?

Active Passive
Have I not written a letter ? Has a letter not been written by me ?
Has she not loved me ? Have I not been loved by her ?
What have you not done ? What has not been done by you ?
Whom have you not obliged ? Who has not been obliged by you ?

4. Passive Voice of Past Indefinite/Simple Past Tense

(a) Affirmative Sentences

Structure :  S + was/were + V3 + other words

Active Passive
I wrote a letter. A letter was written by me.
She loved me. I was loved by her.
They ate apples. Apples were eaten by them.
We helped you. You were helped by us.

(b) Negative Sentences

Structure :  S + was/were + not + V3 + other words

Active Passive
I did not write a letter. A letter was not written by me.
She did not love me. I was not loved by her.
They did not eat apples. Apples were not eaten by them.
We did not help you. You were not helped by us.

(c) Interrogative Sentences

Structure :  Was/Were + S + V3 + other words ?

Active Passive
Did I write a letter? Was a letter written by me?
Did she love me? Was I loved by her ?
Did they eat apples? Were apples eaten by them?
Did we help you? Were you helped by us ?

(d) Negative – Interrogative Sentences.

Structure:  Was/Were + S + Not + V3 + other words?

Active Passive
Did I not write a letter? Was a letter not written by me?
Did she not love me? Was I not loved by her?
Did they not eat apples? Were apples not eaten by them?
Did we not help you? Were you not helped by us ?

5. Passive Voice Past Continuous Tense

(a) Affirmative Sentences
Structure :  S + Was/Were + Being + V + other words

Active Passive
 I was writing a letter. A letter was being written by me.
She was loving me. I was being loved by her.
They were eating apples. Apples were being eaten by them.
We were helping you. You were being helped by us.

(b) Negative Sentences

Structure :  S + Was/Were + Not + Being + V3 + other words

Active Passive
I was not writing a letter.  A letter was not being written by me.
She was not loving me. I was not being loved by her.
We were not helping you. You were not being helped by us.
They were not eating apples. Apples were not being eaten by them.

(c) Interrogative Sentences

Structure:  Was/Were + S + Being + V3 + other words?

Active Passive
was I writing a letter? Was a letter being written by me?
Was she loving me? Was I being loved by her ?
Were they eating apples ? Were apples being eaten by them?
Were we helping you? Were you being helped by us?

(d) Negative-Interrogative Sentences

Structure :  Was/Were +S+ Not + Being + V3 + other words ?

Active Passive
Was I not writing a letter? Was a letter not being written by me?
Was she not loving me? Was I not being loved by her?
Were they not eating apples? Were apples not being eaten by them?
Were we not helping you ? Were you not being helped by us?

6. Past Perfect Tense

(a) Affirmative Sentences

Structure :  S + Had + been + V3 + other words

Active Passive
I had written a letter. A letter had been written by me
She had loved me. I had been loved by her.
They had eaten apples. Apples had been eaten by them.
We had helped you. You had been helped by us.

(b) Negative Sentences

Structure :  S + Had + Not + been + V + other words

Active Passive
I had not written a letter. A letter had not been written by me.
She had not loved me. I had not been loved by her.
They had not eaten apples. Apples had not been eaten by them.
We had not helped you. You had not been helped by us.

(c) Interrogative Sentences

Structure :  Had +S+ been + V3 + other words?

Active Passive
Had I written a letter? Had a letter been written by me?
Had she loved me? Had I been loved by her?
Had they eaten apples? Had apples been eaten by them?
Had we helped you? Had you been helped by us?

(d) Negative Interrogative Sentences

Structure :  Had + S + Not + been + V3 + other words?

Active Passive
Had I not written a letter?  Had a letter not been written by me?
Had she not loved me? Had I not been loved by her?
Had they not eaten apples? Had apples not been eaten by them?
Had we not helped you? Had you not been helped by us?

7. Passive Voice of Future Indefinite/Simple Future Tense

(a) Affirmative Sentences

Structure:  S+ Shall/Will + be + V3 + other words

Active Passive
I shall write a letter. A letter will be written by me.
She will love me. I shall be loved by her.
They will eat apples. Apples will be eaten by them.
We shall help you. You will be helped by us.

(b) Negative Sentence

Structure:  S+ Shall/Will + Not + be + V3+ other words

Active Passive
I shall not write a letter. A letter will not be written by me.
She will not love me. I shall not be loved by her.
They will not eat apples. Apples will not be eaten by them.
We shall not help you. You will not be helped by us.

(c) Interrogative Sentences

Structure :  Shall/Will +S+ be + V3 + other words?

Active Passive
Shall I write a letter ? Will a letter be written by me?
Will she love me? Shall I be loved by her ?
What will he have ? What will be had by him?
How shall ी solve this problem ? How will this problem be solved by me?

(d) Negative-Interrogative Sentences

Structure :  Shall/Will + S + not + be + V3 + other words ?

Active Passive
Shall I not write a letter? Will a letter not be written by me?
Will she not love me? Shall I not be loved by her ?
Will they not eat apples ? Will apples not be eaten by them?
Shall we not help you ? Will you not be helped by us?

8. Passive Voice of Future Perfect Tense

(a) Affirmative Sentences

Structure:  S + Shall/Will + Have + been + V3 + other words

Active Passive
I shall have written a letter. A letter will have been written by me.
She will have loved me. I shall have been loved by her.
They will have eaten apples. Apples will have been eaten by them.
We shall have helped you. You will have been helped by us.

(b) Negative Sentences

Structure :  S + Shall/Will + Not + Have + been +V3  + other words

Active Passive
I shall not have written a letter. A letter will not have been written by me.
She will not have loved me. I shall not have been loved by her.
They will not have eaten apples. Apples will not have been eaten by them.
We shall not have helped you. You will not have been helped by us.

(c) Interrogative Sentences

Structure :  Shall/Will + S + Have + been + V3 + other words?

Active Passive
Shall I have written a letter? Will a letter have been written by me?
Will she have loved me? Shall I have been loved by her?
Shall we have helped you Will you have been helped by us?
Whom will you have taught? Who will have been taught by you?

(d) Negative – Interrogative Sentences

Structure:  Shall/Will + S + Not + Have + been + V3 +other words ?

Active Passive
Shall I not have written a letter? Will a letter not have been written by me?
Will she not have loved me? Shall I not have been loved by her ?
Will they not have eaten apples?  Will apples not have been eaten by them?
Shall we not have helped you? Will you not have been helped by us?

ध्यान दें :  Shall/Will +S+Have +Not+been + V3 + other words ? का प्रयोग होता है। जैसे-

Will a book not have been read by me?
or Will a book have not been read by me?

उपरोक्त दोनों Sentences correct हैं।

9. Subject + Verb + Object + Object

कुछ Active Sentences में Verb के बाद दो-दो Objects रहते हैं। उनमें एक Direct Object होता है और दूसरा Indirect; जैसे—’He gave me a book’ यहाँ gave के बाद दो objects (me/book) आए हैं। इनमें me Indirect object है और book Direct Object.

यह बात ध्यान में रहे कि जिस object के पहले to/for का प्रयोग हो सकता है उसे Indirect Object कहते हैं, पर जिसके पहले to/for का प्रयोग नहीं हो सकता उसे Direct Object कहते हैं। इस sentence में me के पहले to का प्रयोग हो सकता है, पर book के पहले नहीं;

जैसे—

He gave a book to me. इसलिए यहाँ book Direct Object है और me Indirect Object | ऐसे Double Objects वाले Verb को Passive में change करते समय किसी भी object को subject बनाया जा सकता है। परन्तु Indirect Object को ही Subject बनाना ज्यादा उचित है।

लेकिन अगर Direct Object पर ही विशेष emphasis देने की आवश्यकता हो तो Direct Object को ही Subject के रूप में प्रयोग कर Passive में Change करना चाहिए। ऐसे वाक्यों का Passive Structure इस प्रकार होता है।–

(a) S+ be + V3+O
(b) S + be + V3 + to/for +O

Examples:

He gave me a book. I was given a book.
or, A book was given to me.
He bought me a shirt. I was bought a shirt.
or, A shirt was bought for me.
She told me a story. I was told a story
or, A story was told to me.
They have given me a message. I have been given a message.                                                          or, A message has been given to me.

10. Passive Voice of Modal Auxiliaries

(a) shall, will, can, could, may, might, should, would, must, ought a Modal Auxiliaries हैं। जब इनके बाद Active Verb का प्रयोग हो तो इन्हें Passive में Change करने के लिए इस structure का प्रयोग करेंगे;

Structure : S+ modal auxiliary + be + V3 + other words

Active Passive
I can solve the problem. The problem can be solved by me.
You must obey your parents.  Your parents must be obeyed by you.
Students ought to respect the teachers. The teachers ought to be respected by students.
We must help our friends. Our friends must be helped by us.

(b) यदि Verb Phrase का  form Active Voice में Modal Auxiliary + have + V3यानी Modal Auxiliary + Perfect Infinitive हो तो इसे Passive में Change करने के लिए इस structure का प्रयोग करेंगे।

Structure : S+ Modal Auxiliary + have been + V3 + other words

Active Passive
I should have helped him. He should have been helped by me.
He could have done it earlier.  It could have been done earlier by him.
We ought to have respected our freedom-fighters. Our freedom-fighters ought to have been respected.
No one could possibly have informed the police. The police could not possibly have been informed.

11. Passive Voice of Infinitive

1. कुछ वाक्यों की बनावट Active Voice में होती है – S + is/are/am/was/were/have/has/had + infinitives (to + V1)
एसे वाक्यों के Passive Voice की बनावट होती है – S + is/are/am/was/were/have/has/had + to be + V3

Active Passive
I am to help him. He is to be helped by me.
I was to help him. He was to be helped by me.
We are to help him. He is to be helped by us.
I have to help him. He has to be helped by me.

2. यदि वाक्यों की बनावट Active Voice में इस प्रकार हो-

There + Verb + Noun (subject) + Infinitive तो इनके Passive Voice की बनावट  होती है
–There + Verb + Noun (Subject). + to be + V3

Active Passive
There is no time to lose. There is no time to be lost.
There was no money to spend. There was no money to be spent.
There were many people to feed. There were many people to be fed.

3. यदि वाक्यों की बनावट Active Voice में इस प्रकार हो — It + Verb + Noun +infinitive + Object तो इनके Passive Voice की बनावट होती है— It + Verb + Noun + for + Object + to be + infinitive

Active Passive
It is time to take lunch. It is time for lunch to be taken.
It is time to do the work. It is time for the work to be done.
It is a must to write this book. It is a must for this book to be written.

4. यदि वाक्यों की बनावट Active Voice में इस प्रकार हो-

Subject + Verb + Object + infinitive (without ‘to’) तो इन्हे Passive Voice में इस प्रकार Change करें-

(a) Object को Subject बना दें।
(b) Infinitive के to चिन्ह का प्रयोग करे |
(c) Verb का रूप हो जाता है — Verb ‘be’ + V3

Active Passive
I saw her sing a song. She was seen to sing a song.
I found him cross the street. He was found to cross the street.
I saw them run away. They were seen to run away.

12. यदि वाक्यों की बनावट Active Voice में इस प्रकार हो-

S + Verb + Noun/Pronoun + infinitive + other words तो इन्हे Passive Voice में इस प्रकार change करें ।

Active Passive
They have nothing to gain. Nothing is to be gained.
I like people to respect me. I like to be respected.
He wants someone to tell a story, He wants a story to be told.
She wants anyone to take photographs. She wants photographs to be taken.

13. Passive Voice of Interrogative Sentences with Auxiliary Verbs/Yes-No questions:

(A.) यदि Interrogative Sentences कोई Auxiliary Verb (is/are/am/was/were/has/have/had) से शुरू होता है, तो Passive Voice में Auxiliary Verb का रूप नए Subject के अनुसार इस प्रकार बदल जाता है-

1. do/does / did = is/are/am/was/ were + V3
2. have/has/had = have been/has been/had been + V3
3. Other Auxiliary Verbs = auxiliary verb + be + V3

Examples:

Active Passive
Does he teach you ? Are you taught by him?
Did he help you? Were you helped by him?
Has he written a book? Has a book been written by him?
Had the hunter killed the lion ?  Had the lion been killed by the hunter ?
Will you do this job? Will this job be done by you?
Shall we buy a car ? Will a car be bought by us?

(B.) Interrogative Sentences with Wh-Question Words.
1. Wh-questions को Active से Passive में बदलने के पहले  yes no question जैसा बनाकर Passive बना लिया जाता है और Wh-wordको Passive question से पहले रख दिया जाता है।

Active Form: Wh—question word + Auxiliary Verb + S + Verb + other words?
Passive Form : Wh-question word + Auxiliary Verb + S + V3 + other words?

2. Wh-question में “who’ रहने पर नीचे दिए गए structures के आधार पर Passive में change किया जाता है—

(a) By whom + Auxiliary verb + S + V3 + other words?
(b) Who + Auxiliary verb +S+ V3 + by + other words ?

Active Passive
What do you write ? What is written by you?
What did you eat ? What was eaten by you?
How will you solve it?  How will it be solved by you?
Which shirt do you like?  Which shirt is liked by you ?

प्यान दें:
– ऐसे questions जो Auxiliary Verbs से शुरू होते हैं, Yes-No questions कहलाते हैं।

– ऐसे questions जो Wh-words (who, what, when इत्यादि) से शुरू होते हैं, Wh-questions कहलाते हैं।

– Passive voice में  change करते समय who को  By whom तथा whom को  who में change कर दिया जाता है।

– यदि “Wh-word’ subject का part होता है या subject जैसा ही function करता है, तो इसमें कोई change नहीं किया जाता है;

जैसे-

“How many pens do you need ?’ का  Passive voice होगा —’How many pens are needed by you ?’ लेकिन How many persons completed this work?’ का passive voice होगा –By how many persons was this work completed ?’ – By whom और who  . by दोनों use में हैं लेकिन who  . by का प्रयोग आजकल ज्यादा प्रचलित है।

(C.) Passive Voice of Indirect Questions.

कुछ Interrogative Sentence की बनावट Indirect Narration में इस प्रकार की होती है-
S+ ask + Object + if/whether + clause or,
S+ ask + Object + question word + clause.

इनका Passive Voice इस प्रकार बनाएँ-

1. Reporting verb (ask) के Object को subject बना दें ।
2. Reporting verb के पहले verb be’ + V का प्रयोग करें,

जैसे-

Active Passive
I asked Mohan if he was busy. Mohan was asked if he was busy.
They asked me when I would do it.  I was asked when I would do it.
She asked Sohan if he would help her.  Sohan was asked if he would help her
They asked me where I went. I was asked where I went.

14. Passive Voice of Imperative Sentences

(A.) Imperative Sentences expressing Commands/Orders (आज्ञा)

Active form : V1+O+ other words
Passive form: Let + O +be + V3 + other words

Active Passive
Open the window. Let the window be opened.
Bring a glass of water. Let a glass of water be brought.
Don’t touch fire. Let fire not be touched.
Turn him out. Let him be turned out.

ध्यान दें : Let के बाद हमेशा objective case का प्रयोग होता है।

(B.) Imperative Sentences expressing Advice (सलाह)

Active form : V1+O+ other words
Passive form : S + should + be + V3 + other words

Active Passive
Help the poor. The poor should be helped.
Love the country. The country should be loved.
Don’t vex the animals The animals should not be vexed.
Hear him now. He should be heard now.

ध्यान में : Passive Subject Nominative case में रहता है । कुछ sentences ऐसे होते हैं जिनसे यह स्पष्ट नहीं होता कि ये Order से related हैं या Advice से । ऐसी स्थिति में Rule 14 A/B दोनों में से किसी का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है।

(C.) Imperative Sentences with kindly /please (आग्रह) —

Active form : please/kindly + V1 + O + other words

Passive form: you are requested to +V1+O+ other words

Active Passive
Kindly help me. You are requested to help me.
Please don’t disturb me. You are requested not to disturb me.
Give me a pen, please. You are requested to give me a pen.
Kindly teach me voice. You are requested to teach me voice.

(D.) Imperative Sentences with Intransitive Verbs.

Active form: V1 (Intransitive verb) +O+ other words

Passive form: you are ordered/you are advised + to + V1 +O + other words

Active Passive
Stand up. You are ordered to stand up.
Go there. You are ordered to go there.
Work hard. You are advised to work hard.
Walk You are advised to walk.

(E.)  Imperative Sentences starting with Let.

Active form: Let + Object + V1 + Noun    Objective Case (Object)

Passive form: Let + O(Noun) + be + V3+ by + Object  (Objective Case)

Active Passive
Let him complete the work. Let the work be completed by him.
Let us discuss the matter. Let the matter be discussed.
Let me start the game. Let the game be started by me.

It is suggested that … का भी प्रयोग किया जा सकता है, जैसे-

Active Passive
Let us work together.  It is suggested that we should work together.
Let us talk again. It is suggested that we should talk again.

(F.) Passive Voice of Indirect Command/Request/Advice.

कुछ Imperative Sentences की बनावट Indirect Narration में इस प्रकार की होती है-
S + ask/tell/request + object + infinitive.

इनका Passive Voice इस प्रकार बनाएँ-
1. Reporting Verb के Object को Subject बना दे|

2. Infinitive तथा इससे जुड़े शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों रख दें।

3. Reporting Verb के पहले verb ‘be’ + V3 का प्रयोग करें।

Active Passive
I requested her to make tea. She was requested to make tea.
He told her to wait outside. She was told to wait outside.
The inspector ordered the constables to chase the thieves. The constables were ordered to chase the thieves.
The doctor advised me to take medicine in time. I was advised to take medicine in time.

(G.) S + Causative verb + Infinitive (without to)

कुछ वाक्यों में Subject के बाद Causative verb आता है और उसके बाद infinitive (without ‘to’) जैसे – I made him laugh.
इनका Passive Voice इस प्रकार बनाएँ-

1. Object को Subject बना दें।
2. Infinitive के पहले to’ का प्रयोग करें, जो Active voice में छिपा रहता है ।

Active Passive
I made him laugh. He was made to laugh.
He made her sing. She was made to sing.
I saw him go. He was seen to go.

परन्तु Let के साथ Passive में to का प्रयोग नहीं होता;

जैसे-

I let him go.
He was let go.

ध्यान दें

> यहाँ let to go का प्रयोग गलत होगा।
> See, hear, watch, bid, make, feel इत्यादि verbs जब Active Voice में होते हैं तो इनके बाद ‘to’ का प्रयोग नहीं होता है, लेकिन जब इन्हें Passive Voice में change करना होता है, तो इनके साथ ‘to’ का प्रयोग होता है।

(H.) P.C. + that + Noun clause (object)

कुछ वाक्यों में Principl Clause के transitive verb (believe/find/claim/consider/know/report/say/think)के बाद that आता है और इसके बाद एक Noun clause जो object का काम करता है;

जैसे-

We know that some boys remember anything quickly.

ऐसे वाक्यों का रूप Passive में हो जाता है
(a) S + verb be’+ + infinitive.
or, S + verb be’ + V + to be + noun/adjective
(b) It is + V + that + clause (Noun clause)

Examples:-

Active Passive
We know that some boys  remember anything quickly. Some boys are known to remember anything quickly.or,It is known that some boys remember any thing quickly.
People know that Sachin is a great player. Sachin is known to be a great player. or, It is known that Sachin is a great player.
We think that he was a spy. He is thought to have been a spy. or, It is said that he was a spy.
Years ago, people believed that the earth was flat. Years ago, it was believed that the earth was flat.

उपरोक्त वाक्यों का voice change इन नियमों के अनुसार होता है-

1. Noun clause के Subject को Passive में Subject बना दिया जाता है ।

2. Principal clause के Subject का लोप कर दिया जाता है ।

3. By + agent का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है ।

(I.) P.C. + that + Noun clause [in passive voice)

ऐसे वाक्यों में Noun clause का verb रहता है, Passive voice में;

जैसे-

He wants that he should be recognised as a great leader एसे वाक़्यो का रूप Passive में हो जाता है।
P. C. + to be + V3

Examples :-

Active Passive
He wants that he should be rewarded. He wants to be rewarded.
He likes that he should be treated as an 1. A.S.  He likes to be treated as an I. A.S.
She desires that she should be respected by all.  She desires to be respected (by all).
A leader wants that he should be regarded in ,  A leader wants to be regarded in his area.

ध्यान दे :  ऐसे वाक्यों का voice change इन नियमों की सहायता से होता है-
–  Noun clause {that + subject + verb} का लोप होता है|
  Verb के बाद to verbका प्रयोग होता है।

15. Passive Voice of $ + verb + object + complement.

Active Passive
People made him secretary. He was made secretary.
We elected Rahul captain. Rahul was elected captain.
They did not award him Padmshri. He was not awarded Padmshri.
I found him guilty of theft. He was found guilty of theft.

16. Passive Voice of Verb + Preposition/Adverb.

यदि Active Verb के साथ Preposition/Adverb का प्रयोग हो, तो उक्त verb को passive बनाते समय प्रयुक्त Preposition/Adverb को लुप्त नहीं किया जाता है।

Active form : S+ V + Preposition/Adverb particle + object.
Passive form : S+ Auxiliary Verb + V + Preposition/Adverb particle
Examples :-

Active Passive
I look after my father. My father is looked after by me.
We must look for the watch. The watch must be looked for
They threw us out We were thrown out.
No one objected to my proposal, My proposal was not objected to

17. No use of ‘By with some Passive Verbs.

कुछ Passive verbs के साथ by का प्रयोग नहीं होता है | Agent के पहले by के बदले अन्य suitable preposition का प्रयोग किया जाता है ।

Examples :-

Active Passive
I know him. He is known to me.
She pleased me. I was pleased with her.
His behaviour disappointed me. I was disappointed at his behaviour.
The patient’s condition alarmed me. I was alarmed at the patient’s condition.

Passive में ‘by’ के जगह पर दूसरे suitable preposition इस प्रकार प्रयुक्त होते हैं।

इन्हें याद कर लें।

astonished at.  amazed at. addicted to annoyed at.
compared to.  disinterested in. disgusted with. dependent on.
dissatisfied with. displeased with. knocked at.  listen to.
prepared for. quarrel with. satisfied with.  surprised at.

18. Double Passive

नीचे दिए गए Examples को ध्यान से देखें और समझें कि इन्हें किस प्रकार पैसिवमें change किया गया है । प्रत्येक वाक्य में दो या दो से अधिक clauses हैं, जिन्हें passive में change किया गया है।

Active Passive
The police arrested the thieves and sent them to jail. The thieves were arrested and (they were) sent to jail.
She wrote a letter and posted it . A letter was written and (it was) posted by her.
The thief broke into the house and took away the ornaments. The house was broken into and the ornament were taken away.
He read the letter and tore it. The letter was read and (it was)torn by him.

19. Quasi-Passive Verbs or Transitive verbs Passive in Sense.

कुछ ऐसे Transitive verbs होते हैं, जिनका रूप (From)Active Voice की तरह मालूम पड़ता है, लेकिन अर्थ Passive Voice की तरह होता है । ऐसे Verbs को Quasi-Passive Verbs/Middle Voice कहते हैं ।

ऐसे Verbs के बाद Adjective का प्रयोग होता है, जब वह उस Verb के Subject का गुण बताता है, परंतु जब उस Verb का ही गुण बताया जाये तब Verb के बाद Adverb आता है, Adjective नहीं,

जैसे-

The ball feels hard. (= The ball is hard when it is felt.)
गेंद कड़ा मालूम पड़ता है (जब उसका स्पर्श किया जाता है)।

The sofa feels soft. (= The sofa is soft when it is felt.)
सोफा मुलायम मालूम पड़ता है (जब उसका स्पर्श किया जाता है)।

This fruit tastes sweet. (= This fruit is sweet when tasted.)
यह फल मीठा लगता है (जब किसी के द्वारा चखा जाता है)।

Rose smells good. (= The rose is good when smelt.)
गुलाब अच्छा महकता है (जब सूंघा जाता है)।

उपर दिये गये वाक्यों में Verbs के बाद Adjectives का प्रयोग हुआ है, क्योंकि ये Adjectives वाक्य के Subject का गुण बतलाते हैं । यहाँ Adjectives के जगह पर Adverb  का प्रयोग एकदम गलत होगा; क्योंकि इससे वाक्य का कोई अर्थ नहीं लगाया जा सकता ।

इससे यह पता चलता है कि Quasi-Passive Verbs के बाद जो Adjective/Adverb प्रयुक्त होता है, वह वाक्य के अर्थ पर निर्भर करता है । अब, इन वाक्यों को देखें-

The poem reads well. (= The poem sounds well when it is read)
कविता अच्छी लगती है (जब पढ़ी जाती है)।

This bag sells briskly. (= The bag is purchased by many when it is sold)
यह bag खूब बिकती है (जब बेची जाती है तब अनेक लोग खरीदते है)।

उपर्युक्त वाक्यों में Verbs के बाद Adverbs का प्रयोग किया गया है, Adjectives का नहीं; क्योंकि यहाँ Verbs का गुण बतलाया गया है। इन वाक्यों में Adjectives का प्रयोग एकदम गलत होगा, क्योंकि इससे वाक्य का कोई अर्थ नहीं लगाया जा सकता ।

ध्यान दें :

ऊपर के सभी वाक्यों में Transitive verbs अपने Complements के साथ हैं। अब कुछ ऐसे Transitive Verbs पर विचार करें, जिनका न कोई Complement है और न कोई Object ही स्पष्ट रहता है, फिर भी ऐसे Verbs रूप में Active  लेकिन अर्थ में Passive होते हैं, जैसे-

Drums are beating. (ढोल बजाए जा रहे हैं।)

Guns are firing . (बन्दूकें चलाई जा रहीं हैं।)

Books are printing .(किताबें छप रही हैं/छापी जा रही हैं ।)

A castle is building. (किला बनाया जा रहा है।)

20. From Passive Voice to Active Voice

जिस तरीके से Active Voice को Passive Voice में change किया जाता है, उसके ठीक उल्टे तरीके से Passive Voice को Active Voice में change किया जाता है |

अगर “assive Voice में Agent का प्रयोग नहीं किया गया हो, तो अपनी ओर से कोई suitable-Agent  Active Voice के Subject के रूप में प्रयोग किया जाता है। नीचे दिए गए Examples  ka अध्ययन कर अपना concept clear करें-

Examples:

Passive Active
The tiger is killed by the hunter. The hunter kills the tiger.
A book is being written by me. I am writing a book.
The bank had been looted. Robbers looted the bank.
They are known to me. I know them.
Should it be done. Should one do it ?

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